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Individual male mice of several groups were observed during daily encounters with a male intruder. The groups differed with regard to social and sexual experience of the resident animal and of the intruder. Aggressive behavior was most intense in residents actually living with a female and least intense in sexually naïve residents living alone. Residents(More)
In the stag beetle family (Lucanidae), males have diverged from females by sexual selection. The males fight each other for mating opportunities with their enlarged mandibles. It is known that owners of larger fighting apparatuses are favoured to win the male-male fights, but it was unclear whether male stag beetles also need to produce high bite forces(More)
Male stag beetles (Lucanidae) use their extremely elongated jaws to pinch their rivals forcefully in male-male battles. The morphology of these jaws has to be a compromise between robustness (to withstand the bite forces), length and weight. Cyclommatus metallifer stag beetles circumvent this trade-off by reducing their bite force when biting with their(More)
Male stag beetles battle for females with their impressive, oversized mandibles. We describe their fighting behavior, which is essential to understand the evolution and morphology of their weaponry. Our behavioral analysis reveals several anatomical structures that are important for fighting, and our morphological investigations show how these may be(More)
In aggressive battles, the extremely large male stag beetle jaws have to withstand strongly elevated bite forces. We found several adaptations of the male Cyclommatus metallifer jaw morphology for enhanced robustness that conspecific females lack. As a result, males improve their grip on opponents and they maintain their safety factor (5.2-7.2) at the same(More)
Designing very robust structures in an efficient way is a reoccurring challenge in engineering. For male stag beetle weaponry, the solution to this problem was evolved by natural and sexual selection. Stag beetle armature is adapted to perform under extreme circumstances: male stag beetles fight pugnacious battles over females, by using their extremely(More)
Aims Sexual selection has caused the emergence of a wide variety of weapons that are used by males to get access to females (i.e. mandibles, claws, cerci, horns, tusks, antlers; for a review see Emlen, 2008). Research on the selection mechanisms leading to this broad diversity repeatedly encounters the lack of basic knowledge of the functional morphology of(More)
BACKGROUND The tympano-mallear connection (TMC) is the soft-tissue connection between the tympanic membrane (TM) and the manubrium of the malleus. Some studies suggest that its mechanical properties may have a substantial influence on the mechanics and transfer function of the middle ear. However, relatively little is known about the dimensions of the TMC(More)
Male stag beetles have evolved extremely large mandibles in a wide range of extraordinary shapes. These mandibles function as weaponry in pugnacious fights for females. The robust mandibles of Cyclommatus metallifer are as long as their own body and their enlarged head houses massive, hypertrophied musculature. Owing to this disproportional weaponry,(More)
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