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In the stag beetle family (Lucanidae), males have diverged from females by sexual selection. The males fight each other for mating opportunities with their enlarged mandibles. It is known that owners of larger fighting apparatuses are favoured to win the male-male fights, but it was unclear whether male stag beetles also need to produce high bite forces(More)
Two methods are especially suited for tomographic imaging with histological detail of macroscopic samples that consist of multiple tissue types (bone, muscle, nerve or fat): Light sheet (based) fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Micro-CT requires staining with heavy chemical elements (and thus fixation and sometimes(More)
Male stag beetles carry large and heavy mandibles that arose through sexual selection over mating rights. Although the mandibles of Cyclommatus metallifer males are used in pugnacious fights, they are surprisingly slender. Our bite force measurements show a muscle force reduction of 18% for tip biting when compared with bites with the teeth located halfway(More)
Male stag beetles (Lucanidae) use their extremely elongated jaws to pinch their rivals forcefully in male-male battles. The morphology of these jaws has to be a compromise between robustness (to withstand the bite forces), length and weight. Cyclommatus metallifer stag beetles circumvent this trade-off by reducing their bite force when biting with their(More)
Individual male mice of several groups were observed during daily encounters with a male intruder. The groups differed with regard to social and sexual experience of the resident animal and of the intruder. Aggressive behavior was most intense in residents actually living with a female and least intense in sexually naïve residents living alone. Residents(More)
Well-established theoretical models predict host density thresholds for invasion and persistence of parasites with a density-dependent transmission. Studying such thresholds in reality, however, is not obvious because it requires long-term data for several fluctuating populations of different size. We developed a spatially explicit and individual-based SEIR(More)
Designing very robust structures in an efficient way is a reoccurring challenge in engineering. For male stag beetle weaponry, the solution to this problem was evolved by natural and sexual selection. Stag beetle armature is adapted to perform under extreme circumstances: male stag beetles fight pugnacious battles over females, by using their extremely(More)
Male stag beetles have evolved extremely large mandibles in a wide range of extraordinary shapes. These mandibles function as weaponry in pugnacious fights for females. The robust mandibles of Cyclommatus metallifer are as long as their own body and their enlarged head houses massive, hypertrophied musculature. Owing to this disproportional weaponry,(More)