Learn More
The analysis of the phylogenetic structure of communities can help reveal contemporary ecological interactions, as well as link community ecology with biogeography and the study of character evolution. The number of studies employing this broad approach has increased to the point where comparison of their results can now be used to highlight successes and(More)
We report on a phylogenetic analysis of correlations between the occurrence of dioecy and several ecological and life-history attributes: tropical distribution, woody growth form, abiotic pollination, small inconspicuous flowers and inflorescences, many-flowered inflorescences and fleshy fruits. Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain why(More)
Sexual reproduction is an ancient feature of life on earth, and the familiar X and Y chromosomes in humans and other model species have led to the impression that sex determination mechanisms are old and conserved. In fact, males and females are determined by diverse mechanisms that evolve rapidly in many taxa. Yet this diversity in primary sex-determining(More)
The phylogenetic clustering of extinction may jeopardize the existence of entire families and genera, which can result in elevated reductions of evolutionary history (EH), trait diversity, and ecosystem functioning. Analyses of globally threatened birds and mammals suggest current extinction threats will result in a much higher loss of EH than random(More)
As pollinators decline globally, competition for their services is expected to intensify, and this antagonism may be most severe where the number of plant species is the greatest. Using meta-analysis and comparative phylogenetic analysis, we provide a global-scale test of whether reproduction becomes more limited by pollen receipt (pollen limitation) as the(More)
Elucidating factors associated with diversification have been attempted in lineages as diverse as birds, mammals and angiosperms, yet has met with limited success. In flowering plants, the ambiguity of associations between traits and diversification has sparked debate since Darwin's description of angiosperm diversification as an 'abominable mystery'.(More)
The number of ovules per flower varies over several orders of magnitude among angiosperms. Here we consider evidence that stochastic uncertainty in pollen receipt and ovule fertilization has been a selective factor in the evolution of ovule number per flower. We hypothesize that stochastic variation in floral mating success creates an advantage to producing(More)
Understanding the evolution of specialization in host plant use by pollinators is often complicated by variability in the ecological context of specialization. Flowering communities offer their pollinators varying numbers and proportions of floral resources, and the uniformity observed in these floral resources is, to some degree, due to shared ancestry.(More)
Ten years after DNA barcoding was initially suggested as a tool to identify species, millions of barcode sequences from more than 1100 species are available in public databases. While several studies have reviewed the methods and potential applications of DNA barcoding, most have focused on species identification and discovery, and relatively few have(More)
Dioecious plants (with separate male and female individuals) more often have drab, inconspicuous flowers than related bisexual plants. Models indicate, however, that similar conditions favour the evolution of showy floral displays in dioecious and bisexual plants. One difference, however, is that dioecious plants may evolve floral displays that are sexually(More)