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Mitochondrial dysfunction and perturbed degradation of proteins have been implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. Mutations in the Parkin and PINK1 genes are a cause of familial PD. PINK1 is a putative kinase associated with mitochondria, and loss of PINK1 expression leads to mitochondrial dysfunction, which increases with time. Parkin is(More)
BACKGROUND Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Impairment of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) and an increased frequency in deletions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which encodes some of the subunits of the ETC, have been reported in the substantia nigra of PD brains. The(More)
The molecular basis of cytochrome c oxidase (COX, complex IV) deficiency remains genetically undetermined in many cases. Homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing were performed in a consanguineous pedigree with isolated COX deficiency linked to a Leigh syndrome neurological phenotype. Unexpectedly, affected individuals harbored homozygous splice(More)
Cytochrome oxidase catalyses the reduction of oxygen to water. The mitochondrial enzyme contains up to 13 subunits, 11 in yeast, of which three, Cox1p, Cox2p and Cox3p, are mitochondrially encoded. The assembly pathway of this complex is still poorly understood. Its study in yeast has been so far impeded by the rapid turnover of unassembled subunits of the(More)
A major barrier to research on Parkinson's disease is inaccessibility of diseased tissue for study. One solution is to derive induced pluripotent stem cells from patients and differentiate them into neurons affected by disease. Triplication of SNCA, encoding α-synuclein, causes a fully penetrant, aggressive form of Parkinson's disease with dementia.(More)
PURPOSE Refractory convulsive status epilepticus in infancy and childhood is a rare emergency situation. Metabolic disorders frequently underlie this condition, in particular Alpers' disease caused by POLG1 mutations. Status epilepticus may be the first symptom. A pathognomonic electroencephalography (EEG) signature may facilitate diagnosis of Alpers'(More)
BACKGROUND Deficiency of 3-hydroxy-isobutyryl-CoA hydrolase (HIBCH) caused by HIBCH mutations is a rare cerebral organic aciduria caused by disturbance of valine catabolism. Multiple mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) enzyme deficiencies can arise from a number of mechanisms, including defective maintenance or expression of mitochondrial DNA. Impaired(More)
The total amount of cellular mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) varies widely and seems to be related to the nature and metabolic state of tissues and cells in culture. It is not known, however, whether this variation has any significance in vivo, and to which extent it regulates energy production. To better understand the importance of the cellular mtDNA level, we(More)
We report a patient with relatively mild Leigh syndrome and mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II deficiency caused by a homozygous G555E mutation in the nuclear encoded flavoprotein subunit of succinate dehydrogenase. This mutation has previously been reported in a lethal-infantile presentation of complex II deficiency. Such marked phenotypic(More)
In Huntington's disease (HD) the striatum and cortex seem particularly vulnerable. Mitochondrial dysfunction can also cause neurodegeneration with prominent striatal involvement very similar to HD. We first examined if mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) transcription, and the implications for mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) assembly(More)