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The human multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) family currently has seven members. The ability of several of these membrane proteins to transport a wide range of anticancer drugs out of cells and their presence in many tumors make them prime suspects in unexplained cases of drug resistance, although proof that they contribute to clinical drug(More)
Photoreceptor ribbon synapses release glutamate in response to graded changes in membrane potential evoked by vast, logarithmically scalable light intensities. Neurotransmitter release is modulated by intracellular calcium levels. Large Ca(2+)-dependent chloride currents are important regulators of synaptic transmission from photoreceptors to second-order(More)
Cortical development depends upon tightly controlled cell fate and cell survival decisions that generate a functional neuronal population, but the coordination of these two processes is poorly understood. Here we show that conditional removal of a key apical complex protein, Pals1, causes premature withdrawal from the cell cycle, inducing excessive(More)
Mouse fibroblast cell lines lacking functional Mdr1a, Mdr1b, and Mrp1 genes were selected for resistance to topotecan, mitoxantrone, or doxorubicin. Each of the resulting drug-resistant lines showed marked gene amplification of Bcrp1, the mouse homologue of the human ATP-binding cassette transporter gene BCRP/MXR/ABCP, and greatly elevated expression of(More)
Loss of Crumbs homologue 1 (CRB1) function causes either the eye disease Leber congenital amaurosis or progressive retinitis pigmentosa, depending on the amount of residual CRB1 activity and the genetic background. Crb1 localizes specifically to the sub-apical region adjacent to the adherens junction complex at the outer limiting membrane in the retina. We(More)
Scanning-laser ophthalmoscopy is a technique for confocal imaging of the eye in vivo. The use of lasers of different wavelengths allows to obtain information about specific tissues and layers due to their reflection and transmission characteristics. In addition, fluorescent dyes excitable in the blue and infrared range offer a unique access to the vascular(More)
BACKGROUND Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel method of retinal in vivo imaging. In this study, we assessed the potential of OCT to yield histology-analogue sections in mouse models of retinal degeneration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We achieved to adapt a commercial 3(rd) generation OCT system to obtain and quantify high-resolution(More)
Several retinal dystrophies, including retinitis pigmentosa type 12 and Leber congenital amaurosis, are caused by a large variety of mutations in the CRB1 (Crumbs homologue 1) gene. This discovery led to an increased focus on the function of CRB1 and the Drosophila homologue Crumbs. In the present study, we review the current knowledge on Crumbs and its(More)
Astrocytes play an important role in the glutathione (GSH) metabolism of the brain. To test for an involvement of multidrug resistance protein (Mrp) 1 and 5 in the release of GSH and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) from astrocytes, we used astrocyte cultures from wild-type, Mrp1-deficient [Mrp1(-/-)] and Mrp5-deficient [Mrp5(-/-)] mice. During incubation of(More)
Mutations in the human Crumbs homologue 1 (CRB1) gene cause severe retinal dystrophies. CRB1 is homologous to Drosophila Crumbs, a protein essential for establishing and maintaining epithelial polarity. We have isolated the mouse orthologue, Crb1, and analyzed its expression pattern in embryonic and post-natal stages. Crb1 is expressed exclusively in the(More)