Learn More
Little is known about the defensive mechanisms induced in epithelial cells by pathogenic versus probiotic bacteria. The aim of our study was to compare probiotic bacterial strains such as Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 with nonprobiotic, pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria with respect to innate defense mechanisms in the intestinal mucosal cell. Here we(More)
Defensins are endogenous antimicrobial peptides that protect the intestinal mucosa against bacterial invasion. It has been suggested that deficient defensin expression may underlie the chronic inflammation of Crohn disease (CD). The DNA copy number of the beta-defensin gene cluster on chromosome 8p23.1 is highly polymorphic within the healthy population,(More)
Recent evidence suggests that probiotic bacteria may stabilize gut barrier function via induction of anti-microbial peptides such as defensins. This study aimed to elucidate the induction mechanism of the human beta defensin-2 (hBD-2) gene by different probiotic lactobacillus strains. The expression of hBD-2 mRNA peaked at 6 h of incubation upon treatment(More)
The pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD), an idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease, is attributed, in part, to intestinal bacteria that may initiate and perpetuate mucosal inflammation in genetically susceptible individuals. Paneth cells (PC) are the major source of antimicrobial peptides in the small intestine, including human alpha-defensins HD5 and HD6.(More)
Human epithelia are permanently challenged by bacteria and fungi, including commensal and pathogenic microbiota. In the gut, the fraction of strict anaerobes increases from proximal to distal, reaching 99% of bacterial species in the colon. At colonic mucosa, oxygen partial pressure is below 25% of airborne oxygen content, moreover microbial metabolism(More)
Human beta-defensin 2 (hBD-2) is an inducible antimicrobial peptide synthesized by the epithelium to counteract bacterial adherence and invasion. Proinflammatory cytokines, as well as certain bacterial strains, have been identified as potent endogenous inducers. Recently, we have found that hBD-2 induction by probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 was(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors tested whether the anti-interleukin (IL)-17A monoclonal antibody secukinumab was safe and effective for the treatment of active Crohn's disease. DESIGN In a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled proof-of-concept study, 59 patients with moderate to severe Crohn's disease (Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) ≥220 to ≤450) were(More)
Antimicrobial peptides such as defensins provide nonspecific mucosal defense against a multitude of microorganisms. Recently, it has been shown that luminal bacteria may invade the mucosa in inflammatory bowel diseases, suggesting a defect in innate mucosal immunity. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of human beta-defensins (HBD) in(More)
Inducible epithelial human beta-defensins (hBD) play an important role in intestinal barrier function. In vitro studies showed that clinically effective probiotics induce antimicrobial hBD-2. Here, we aimed to assess the in vivo effect in healthy volunteers and also addressed how defensins affect probiotic survival. Symbioflor 2 containing one strain of(More)
BACKGROUND Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are characterized by a breakdown of colon epithelial barrier function. Antimicrobial peptides like cathelicidins are molecules of the innate immune system located at epithelial surfaces. Cathelicidins influence microbial growth and inflammation and may play a role in IBD. In this study, the expression of human(More)