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Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein degradation requires the dislocation of selected substrates from the ER to the cytosol for proteolysis via the ubiquitin–proteasome system. The AAA ATPase Cdc48 (known as p97 or VCP in mammals) has a crucial, but poorly understood role in this transport step. Here, we show that Ubx2 (Sel1) mediates interaction(More)
Integral membrane and secretory proteins which fail to fold productively are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and targeted for degradation by cytoplasmic proteasomes. Genetic and biochemical analyses suggest that substrates of this pathway must be dislocated across the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by a process requiring a functional Sec61(More)
In 2004, a major outbreak of hepatitis A among tourists returning from Egypt involved 351 case-patients from 9 European countries who were infected with a single strain (genotype 1 b). The case-control study identified orange juice as the most likely infection vehicle. Vaccination against hepatitis A virus is strongly recommended before travel to(More)
BACKGROUND In low-resource settings, many programs recommend that women who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) stop breast-feeding early. We conducted a randomized trial to evaluate whether abrupt weaning at 4 months as compared with the standard practice has a net benefit for HIV-free survival of children. METHODS We enrolled 958(More)
Given the central role that interleukin 15 (IL-15) plays in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immunity, we hypothesized that IL-15 in breast milk may protect against postnatal HIV transmission. In a nested case-control study, we compared breast milk IL-15 levels in 22 HIV-infected women who transmitted HIV to their infants to those in 72 nontransmitters.(More)
The surgical management of cervical spondylodiscitis consists of the resection of the affected disc, the decompression of the cervical spinal cord, followed by the stabilization using an autologous bone graft or a titanium implant combined with a ventral plate fixation. Until now, there were no studies about the practicability and putative safety of PEEK(More)
OBJECTIVE Concern for potential adverse effects of antiretroviral (ARV) chemotherapy used to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission has led the US Public Health Service to recommend long-term follow-up of ARV-exposed children. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor ARV agents can inhibit DNA polymerase gamma, impairing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)(More)
Single center evaluation of the placement accuracy of thoracolumbar pedicle screws implanted either with fluoroscopy or under CT-navigation using 3D-reconstruction and intraoperative computed tomography control of the screw position. There is in fact a huge variation in the reported placement accuracy of pedicle screws, especially concerning the screw(More)
Human antibody 4E10 targets the highly conserved membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of the HIV-1 transmembrane glycoprotein, gp41, and has extraordinarily broad neutralizing activity. It is considered by many to be a prototype for vaccine development. In this study, we describe four subjects infected with viruses carrying rare MPER polymorphisms(More)
OBJECT In patients who have undergone decompressive craniectomy, autologous bone flap reinsertion becomes necessary whenever the cerebral situation has consolidated. However, aseptic necrosis of the bone flap remains a concern. The aim of this study was to report possible perioperative complications in patients undergoing autologous bone flap reinsertion(More)