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The global potential to obtain clean energy from mixing river water with seawater is considerable. Reverse electrodialysis is a membrane-based technique for direct production of sustainable electricity from controlled mixing of river water and seawater. It has been investigated generally with a focus on obtained power, without taking care of the energy(More)
The entropy increase of mixing two solutions of different salt concentrations can be harnessed to generate electrical energy. Worldwide, the potential of this resource, the controlled mixing of river and seawater, is enormous, but existing conversion technologies are still complex and expensive. Here we present a small-scale device that directly generates(More)
This research is part of the Sewer Mining project aimed at developing a new technological concept by extracting water from sewage by means of forward osmosis (FO). FO, in combination with a reconcentration system, e.g. reverse osmosis (RO) is used to recover high-quality water. Furthermore, the subsequent concentrated sewage (containing an inherent energy(More)
The draw solution is the driving force of the forward osmosis (FO) process; however, the solute loss of the draw solute to the feed side is a general, financial limitation for most applications. The anthropogenic amino acid ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was investigated as a draw solution for FO. At concentrations of approximately 1.0 osmol/kg,(More)
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