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The first enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, Phe ammonia-lyase (PAL), is encoded by four genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Whereas PAL function is well established in various plants, an insight into the functional significance of individual gene family members is lacking. We show that in the absence of clear phenotypic alterations in the Arabidopsis pal1(More)
This study examined whether antigenic differences among porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) strains could be detected using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). A subtractive immunization protocol was used for the genotype 2 post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS)-associated PCV-2 strain Stoon-1,010. Sixteen stable hybridomas that produced mAbs with an(More)
BACKGROUND Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is divided into a European and North American genotype. East European PRRSV isolates have been found to be of the European genotype, but form different subtypes. In the present study, PRRSV was isolated from a Belarusian farm with reproductive and respiratory failure and designated(More)
BACKGROUND Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes major economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. In vivo, the virus infects a subpopulation of tissue macrophages. In vitro, PRRSV only replicates in primary pig macrophages and African green monkey kidney derived cells, such as Marc-145. The latter is currently used for(More)
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) strains have been classified into two major genotypes (PCV2a and PCV2b) and 8 genetic clusters: PCV2b-1A to PCV2b-1C and PCV2a-2A to PCV2a-2E. To date, no studies have been performed to antigenically subtype PCV2 strains enclosing eight PCV2 clusters. The present study aimed to antigenically subtype PCV2 and perform(More)
al. Multicentre survey of incidence and public health impact of leptospirosis in the western Pacifi c. comparative accuracy of 8 commercial rapid immunochromatographic assays for the diagnosis of acute dengue virus infection. To the Editor: African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious and deadly hemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs caused by African(More)
This study examines the immunogenicity and efficacy of four commercial swine influenza (SI) vaccines against challenge with a recent European H1N1 virus, Sw/Gent/112/07. The vaccines contained different H1N1 strains showing between 77% and 95% genetic homology with the haemagglutinin (HA) of the challenge virus. Four groups of 10 pigs each received a double(More)
Different viruses exploit the host cytoskeleton to facilitate replication and spread. The conserved US3 protein of the alphaherpesvirus pseudorabies virus induces actin stress fiber disassembly and formation of actin-containing cell projections, which are associated with enhanced intercellular virus spread. Proteins of members of other virus families,(More)
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can induce severe reproductive failure in sows, and is involved in the porcine respiratory disease complex. The glycoprotein GP4 of the European prototype PRRSV strain Lelystad virus (LV) contains a linear neutralizing epitope that is located in a highly variable region. The current study aimed to(More)
The structural envelope glycoprotein GP4 of European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strains contains a highly variable neutralizing epitope that is susceptible to neutralizing antibody-mediated selective pressure in vitro. In this study, it was analyzed what happens with this neutralizing epitope during infection in vivo in the(More)