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Studying lignin-biosynthetic-pathway mutants and transgenics provides insights into plant responses to perturbations of the lignification system, and enhances our understanding of normal lignification. When enzymes late in the pathway are downregulated, significant changes in the composition and structure of lignin may result. NMR spectroscopy provides(More)
The first enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, Phe ammonia-lyase (PAL), is encoded by four genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Whereas PAL function is well established in various plants, an insight into the functional significance of individual gene family members is lacking. We show that in the absence of clear phenotypic alterations in the Arabidopsis pal1(More)
BACKGROUND Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is divided into a European and North American genotype. East European PRRSV isolates have been found to be of the European genotype, but form different subtypes. In the present study, PRRSV was isolated from a Belarusian farm with reproductive and respiratory failure and designated(More)
BACKGROUND Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes major economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. In vivo, the virus infects a subpopulation of tissue macrophages. In vitro, PRRSV only replicates in primary pig macrophages and African green monkey kidney derived cells, such as Marc-145. The latter is currently used for(More)
al. Multicentre survey of incidence and public health impact of leptospirosis in the western Pacifi c. comparative accuracy of 8 commercial rapid immunochromatographic assays for the diagnosis of acute dengue virus infection. To the Editor: African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious and deadly hemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs caused by African(More)
We tested serum samples from pigs infected or vaccinated with European swine influenza viruses (SIVs) in hemagglutination-inhibition assays against pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus and related North American SIVs. We found more serologic cross-reaction than expected. Data suggest pigs in Europe may have partial immunity to pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus.
BACKGROUND Pigs are considered to be intermediate hosts for the transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) between birds and humans, but the transmissibility of AIVs among pigs and from pigs to other mammals remains largely unexplored. METHODS In an initial study, we confirmed the replication potential of various low-pathogenic AIVs in pigs and(More)
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute viral disease of small ruminants. The disease was first reported in Tanzania in 2008 when it was confined to the Northern Zone districts bordering Kenya. The present study was carried out to confirm the presence of PPR virus (PPRV) in Tanzania and to establish their phylogenetic relationships. Samples (oculonasal(More)
BACKGROUND The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a rapidly evolving pathogen of swine. At present, there is a high demand for safe and more effective vaccines that can be adapted regularly to emerging virus variants. A recent study showed that, by the use of a controlled inactivation procedure, an experimental BEI-inactivated(More)
Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) Smith strain is widely used in mouse models to study HCMV infections. Due to high serial passages, MCMV Smith has acquired genetic and biological changes. Therefore, a low passaged strain would be more relevant to develop mouse models. Here, the pathogenesis of an infection with MCMV Smith was compared with that of an infection(More)