Learn More
The subunit stoichiometry of the mammalian K+ channel KV1.1 (RCK1) was examined by linking together the coding sequences of 2-5 K+ channel subunits in a single open reading frame and tagging the expression of individual subunits with a mutation (Y379K or Y379R) that altered the sensitivity of the channel to block by external tetraethylammonium ion. Two(More)
Na+-channel specific scorpion toxins are peptides of 60-76 amino acid residues in length, tightly bound by four disulfide bridges. The complete amino acid sequence of 85 distinct peptides are presently known. For some toxins, the three-dimensional structure has been solved by X-ray diffraction and NMR spectroscopy. A constant structural motif has been found(More)
An important step toward understanding the molecular basis of the functional diversity of pacemaker currents in spontaneously active cells has been the identification of a gene family encoding hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-sensitive cation nonselective (HCN) channels. Three of the four gene products that have been expressed so far give rise(More)
Peptidyl toxins are used extensively to determine the pharmacology of ion channels. Four families of peptides have been purified from scorpion venom. In this article, the classification of K+-channel-blocking peptides belonging to family 2 peptides and comprising 30-40 amino acids linked by three or four disulfide bridges, will be discussed. Evidence is(More)
Among the different scorpion species, Buthus martensi Karsch (BmK), a widely distributed scorpion species in Asia, has received a lot of attention. Indeed, over the past decade, more than 70 different peptides, toxins or homologues have been isolated and more peptides are probably still to be revealed. This review is focusing on the many peptides isolated(More)
Hainantoxin-I is a novel peptide toxin, purified from the venom of the Chinese bird spider Selenocosmia hainana (=Ornithoctonus hainana). It includes 33 amino acid residues with a disulfide linkage of I-IV, II-V and III-VI, assigned by partial reduction and sequence analysis. Under two-electrode voltage-clamp conditions, hainantoxin-I can block(More)
Single-channel measurements and whole-cell experiments with the two suction electrode, voltage clamp technique were used to investigate the effects of external and internal proton concentrations on T-type Ca channels in heart muscle cells of the guinea pig. As in the L-type Ca channel, an increase in the external proton concentration decreases T-type(More)
Marine snails of the genus Conus are a large family of predatory gastropods with an unparalleled molecular diversity of pharmacologically active compounds in their venom. Cone snail venom comprises of a rich and diverse cocktail of peptide toxins which act on a wide variety of ion channels such as voltage-gated sodium- (NaV), potassium- (KV), and calcium-(More)
Voltage-gated Na(+) channels are integral membrane proteins that function as a gateway for a selective permeation of sodium ions across biological membranes. In this way, they are crucial players for the generation of action potentials in excitable cells. Voltage-gated Na(+) channels are encoded by at least nine genes in mammals. The different isoforms have(More)