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The regular arrangement of leaves around a plant's stem, called phyllotaxis, has for centuries attracted the attention of philosophers, mathematicians and natural scientists; however, to date, studies of phyllotaxis have been largely theoretical. Leaves and flowers are formed from the shoot apical meristem, triggered by the plant hormone auxin. Auxin is(More)
The Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyl is widely used to study the effects of light and plant growth factors on cell elongation. To provide a framework for the molecular-genetic analysis of cell elongation in this organ, here we describe, at the cellular level, its morphology and growth and identify a number of characteristic, developmental differences between(More)
The plant hormone auxin is thought to provide positional information for patterning during development. It is still unclear, however, precisely how auxin is distributed across tissues and how the hormone is sensed in space and time. The control of gene expression in response to auxin involves a complex network of over 50 potentially interacting(More)
Quantitative information on growing organs is required to better understand morphogenesis in both plants and animals. However, detailed analyses of growth patterns at cellular resolution have remained elusive. We developed an approach, multiangle image acquisition, three-dimensional reconstruction and cell segmentation-automated lineage tracking (MARS-ALT),(More)
We have analysed the role of a microRNA, miR164, in boundary formation during organ initiation from Arabidopsis meristems. The establishment and maintenance of the boundary domain are controlled by three partially redundant genes, CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON1 (CUC1), CUC2 and CUC3. We show that miR164 overexpression phenocopies the cuc1 cuc2 double mutant by(More)
Auxin is a key plant morphogenetic signal but tools to analyse dynamically its distribution and signalling during development are still limited. Auxin perception directly triggers the degradation of Aux/IAA repressor proteins. Here we describe a novel Aux/IAA-based auxin signalling sensor termed DII-VENUS that was engineered in the model plant Arabidopsis(More)
The homeobox gene family plays a crucial role during the development of multicellular organisms. The KNOTTED-like genes from Arabidopsis thaliana (KNAT6 and KNAT2) are close relatives of the meristematic genes SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) and BREVIPEDICELLUS, but their function is not currently known. To investigate their role, we identified null alleles of(More)
The PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are plasma-membrane-associated facilitators of auxin transport. They are often targeted to one side of the cell only through subcellular mechanisms that remain largely unknown. Here, we have studied the potential roles of the cytoskeleton and endomembrane system in the localisation of PIN proteins. Immunocytochemistry and image(More)
A central question in developmental biology is whether and how mechanical forces serve as cues for cellular behavior and thereby regulate morphogenesis. We found that morphogenesis at the Arabidopsis shoot apex depends on the microtubule cytoskeleton, which in turn is regulated by mechanical stress. A combination of experiments and modeling shows that a(More)
Morphogenesis during multicellular development is regulated by intercellular signaling molecules as well as by the mechanical properties of individual cells. In particular, normal patterns of organogenesis in plants require coordination between growth direction and growth magnitude. How this is achieved remains unclear. Here we show that in Arabidopsis(More)