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The regular arrangement of leaves around a plant's stem, called phyllotaxis, has for centuries attracted the attention of philosophers, mathematicians and natural scientists; however, to date, studies of phyllotaxis have been largely theoretical. Leaves and flowers are formed from the shoot apical meristem, triggered by the plant hormone auxin. Auxin is(More)
We have analysed the role of a microRNA, miR164, in boundary formation during organ initiation from Arabidopsis meristems. The establishment and maintenance of the boundary domain are controlled by three partially redundant genes, CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON1 (CUC1), CUC2 and CUC3. We show that miR164 overexpression phenocopies the cuc1 cuc2 double mutant by(More)
The Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyl is widely used to study the effects of light and plant growth factors on cell elongation. To provide a framework for the molecular-genetic analysis of cell elongation in this organ, here we describe, at the cellular level, its morphology and growth and identify a number of characteristic, developmental differences between(More)
We have studied the F-actin network in cycling suspension culture cells of carrot (Daucus carota L.) using rhodaminyl lysine phallotoxin (RLP). In addition to conventional fixation with formaldehyde, we have used two different nonfixation methods before adding RLP: extracting cells in a stabilizing buffer; inducing transient pores in the plasma membrane(More)
The process of organ positioning has been addressed, using the pin-formed 1 (pin1) mutant as a tool. PIN1 is a transmembrane protein involved in auxin transport in Arabidopsis. Loss of function severely affects organ initiation, and pin1 mutants are characterised by an inflorescence meristem that does not initiate any flowers, resulting in the formation of(More)
The KNAT2 (for KNOTTED-like from Arabidopsis thaliana 2) homeobox gene is expressed in the vegetative apical meristem. It is also active during flower development, suggesting a function in the structuring of flowers. To investigate its role, we used a DEXAMETHASONE (DEX)-inducible system to generate transgenic plants that overexpressed a fusion of KNAT2(More)
The plant hormone auxin is thought to provide positional information for patterning during development. It is still unclear, however, precisely how auxin is distributed across tissues and how the hormone is sensed in space and time. The control of gene expression in response to auxin involves a complex network of over 50 potentially interacting(More)
Auxin is a key plant morphogenetic signal but tools to analyse dynamically its distribution and signalling during development are still limited. Auxin perception directly triggers the degradation of Aux/IAA repressor proteins. Here we describe a novel Aux/IAA-based auxin signalling sensor termed DII-VENUS that was engineered in the model plant Arabidopsis(More)
The PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are plasma-membrane-associated facilitators of auxin transport. They are often targeted to one side of the cell only through subcellular mechanisms that remain largely unknown. Here, we have studied the potential roles of the cytoskeleton and endomembrane system in the localisation of PIN proteins. Immunocytochemistry and image(More)
Quantitative information on growing organs is required to better understand morphogenesis in both plants and animals. However, detailed analyses of growth patterns at cellular resolution have remained elusive. We developed an approach, multiangle image acquisition, three-dimensional reconstruction and cell segmentation-automated lineage tracking (MARS-ALT),(More)