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G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are responsible for the majority of cellular responses to hormones and neurotransmitters as well as the senses of sight, olfaction and taste. The paradigm of GPCR signalling is the activation of a heterotrimeric GTP binding protein (G protein) by an agonist-occupied receptor. The β(2) adrenergic receptor (β(2)AR)(More)
G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) exhibit a spectrum of functional behaviours in response to natural and synthetic ligands. Recent crystal structures provide insights into inactive states of several GPCRs. Efforts to obtain an agonist-bound active-state GPCR structure have proven difficult due to the inherent instability of this state in the absence of a(More)
A long-held tenet of molecular pharmacology is that canonical signal transduction mediated by G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) coupling to heterotrimeric G proteins is confined to the plasma membrane. Evidence supporting this traditional view is based on analytical methods that provide limited or no subcellular resolution. It has been subsequently proposed(More)
Despite recent advances in crystallography and the availability of G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) structures, little is known about the mechanism of their activation process, as only the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) and rhodopsin have been crystallized in fully active conformations. Here we report the structure of an agonist-bound, active state of the(More)
Azospirillum brasilense belongs to the plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria with direct growth promotion through the production of the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). A key gene in the production of IAA, annotated as indole-3-pyruvate decarboxylase (ipdC), has been isolated from A. brasilense, and its regulation was reported previously (A. Vande(More)
P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is one of the best-known mediators of drug efflux-based multidrug resistance in many cancers. This validated therapeutic target is a prototypic, plasma membrane resident ATP-Binding Cassette transporter that pumps xenobiotic compounds out of cells. The large, polyspecific drug-binding pocket of P-gp recognizes a variety of structurally(More)
The active-state complex between an agonist-bound receptor and a guanine nucleotide-free G protein represents the fundamental signaling assembly for the majority of hormone and neurotransmitter signaling. We applied single-particle electron microscopy (EM) analysis to examine the architecture of agonist-occupied β(2)-adrenoceptor (β(2)AR) in complex with(More)
Secretins are among the largest bacterial outer membrane proteins known. Here we report the crystal structure of the periplasmic N-terminal domain of GspD (peri-GspD) from the type 2 secretion system (T2SS) secretin in complex with a nanobody, the VHH domain of a heavy-chain camelid antibody. Two different crystal forms contained the same compact(More)
S-layers are regular two-dimensional semipermeable protein layers that constitute a major cell-wall component in archaea and many bacteria. The nanoscale repeat structure of the S-layer lattices and their self-assembly from S-layer proteins (SLPs) have sparked interest in their use as patterning and display scaffolds for a range of nano-biotechnological(More)
Activation of the μ-opioid receptor (μOR) is responsible for the efficacy of the most effective analgesics. To shed light on the structural basis for μOR activation, here we report a 2.1 Å X-ray crystal structure of the murine μOR bound to the morphinan agonist BU72 and a G protein mimetic camelid antibody fragment. The BU72-stabilized changes in the μOR(More)