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G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are responsible for the majority of cellular responses to hormones and neurotransmitters as well as the senses of sight, olfaction and taste. The paradigm of GPCR signalling is the activation of a heterotrimeric GTP binding protein (G protein) by an agonist-occupied receptor. The β(2) adrenergic receptor (β(2)AR)(More)
G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) exhibit a spectrum of functional behaviours in response to natural and synthetic ligands. Recent crystal structures provide insights into inactive states of several GPCRs. Efforts to obtain an agonist-bound active-state GPCR structure have proven difficult due to the inherent instability of this state in the absence of a(More)
A long-held tenet of molecular pharmacology is that canonical signal transduction mediated by G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) coupling to heterotrimeric G proteins is confined to the plasma membrane. Evidence supporting this traditional view is based on analytical methods that provide limited or no subcellular resolution. It has been subsequently proposed(More)
Despite recent advances in crystallography and the availability of G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) structures, little is known about the mechanism of their activation process, as only the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) and rhodopsin have been crystallized in fully active conformations. Here we report the structure of an agonist-bound, active state of the(More)
Activation of the μ-opioid receptor (μOR) is responsible for the efficacy of the most effective analgesics. To shed light on the structural basis for μOR activation, here we report a 2.1 Å X-ray crystal structure of the murine μOR bound to the morphinan agonist BU72 and a G protein mimetic camelid antibody fragment. The BU72-stabilized changes in the μOR(More)
The interplay between aromatic stacking and hydrogen bonding in nucleobases has been investigated via high-level quantum chemical calculations. The experimentally observed stacking arrangement between consecutive bases in DNA and RNA/DNA double helices is shown to enhance their hydrogen bonding ability as opposed to gas phase optimized complexes. This(More)
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) remain the primary conduit by which cells detect environmental stimuli and communicate with each other. Upon activation by extracellular agonists, these seven-transmembrane-domain-containing receptors interact with heterotrimeric G proteins to regulate downstream second messenger and/or protein kinase cascades.(More)
Type IV secretion (T4S) systems are able to transport DNAs and/or proteins through the membranes of bacteria. They form large multiprotein complexes consisting of 12 proteins termed VirB1-11 and VirD4. VirB7, 9 and 10 assemble into a 1.07 MegaDalton membrane-spanning core complex (CC), around which all other components assemble. This complex is made of two(More)
S-layers are regular two-dimensional semipermeable protein layers that constitute a major cell-wall component in archaea and many bacteria. The nanoscale repeat structure of the S-layer lattices and their self-assembly from S-layer proteins (SLPs) have sparked interest in their use as patterning and display scaffolds for a range of nano-biotechnological(More)