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Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia is an aggressive myeloproliferative disorder characterized by malignant transformation in the hematopoietic stem cell compartment with proliferation of differentiated progeny. Seventy-five percent of patients harbor mutations in the NF1, NRAS, KRAS, or PTPN11 genes, which encode components of Ras signaling networks. Using(More)
Busulfan is widely used as a component of the myeloablative therapy in bone marrow transplantation. Recent studies have shown that the drug disposition is altered in children and is associated with less therapeutic effectiveness, lower toxicities, and higher rates of engraftment failure. We have evaluated the bioavailability of the drug in two groups of(More)
Wilms' tumor gene 1 (WT1) is overexpressed in the majority (70-90%) of acute leukemias and has been identified as an independent adverse prognostic factor, a convenient minimal residual disease (MRD) marker and potential therapeutic target in acute leukemia. We examined WT1 expression patterns in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), where its(More)
CBL encodes a member of the Cbl family of proteins, which functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. We describe a dominant developmental disorder resulting from germline missense CBL mutations, which is characterized by impaired growth, developmental delay, cryptorchidism and a predisposition to juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). Some individuals(More)
Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a congenital red blood cell aplasia that is usually diagnosed during early infancy. Apart from defects in red blood cell maturation, the disorder is also associated with various physical anomalies in 40% of patients. Mutations in the ribosomal protein (RP) S19 are found in 25% of patients, while mutations in other proteins(More)
Assessment of minimal residual disease (MRD) has acquired a prominent position in European treatment protocols for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), on the basis of its high prognostic value for predicting outcome and the possibilities for implementation of MRD diagnostics in treatment stratification. Therefore, there is an increasing need(More)
BACKGROUND Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in infants younger than 1 year is rare, and infants with the disease have worse outcomes than do older children. We initiated an international study to investigate the effects of a new hybrid treatment protocol with elements designed to treat both acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and acute myeloid leukaemia, and to(More)
PURPOSE The rates of early death (ED) and treatment-related mortality (TRM) are unacceptably high in children undergoing intensive chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Better strategies of supportive care might help to improve overall survival in these children. PATIENTS AND METHODS In a retrospective study, we analyzed incidence, clinical(More)
Outcomes of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) improve significantly by intensification of induction. To further intensify anthracycline dosage without increasing cardiotoxicity, we compared potentially less cardiotoxic liposomal daunorubicin (L-DNR) to idarubicin at a higher-than-equivalent dose (80 vs 12 mg/m(2) per day for 3 days) during(More)
Despite improved prognosis in acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML) children with Down syndrome (DS), therapy-related toxicity remained a problem. We compared 67 DS patients from study AML-BFM 98 with 51 DS patients of the previous study AML-BFM 93, and the non-DS groups of both studies. Compared to non-DS patients, DS patients were treated with reduced(More)