Learn More
Plants rely heavily on receptor-like kinases (RLKs) for perception and integration of external and internal stimuli. The Arabidopsis regulatory leucine-rich repeat RLK (LRR-RLK) BAK1 is involved in steroid hormone responses, innate immunity, and cell death control. Here, we describe the differential regulation of three different BAK1-dependent signaling(More)
The rapid production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst is a conserved signaling output in immunity across kingdoms. In plants, perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by surface-localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) activates the NADPH oxidase RBOHD by hitherto unknown mechanisms. Here, we show that RBOHD exists in complex(More)
The plant immune system is activated by microbial patterns that are detected as nonself molecules. Such patterns are recognized by immune receptors that are cytoplasmic or localized at the plasma membrane. Cell surface receptors are represented by receptor-like kinases (RLKs) that frequently contain extracellular leucine-rich repeats and an intracellular(More)
Phytopathogenic oomycetes, such as Phytophthora infestans, secrete an arsenal of effector proteins that modulate plant innate immunity to enable infection. We describe CRN8, a host-translocated effector of P. infestans that has kinase activity in planta. CRN8 is a modular protein of the CRN effector family. The C-terminus of CRN8 localizes to the host(More)
For healthy infants, which were born normally and fully breastfed, the dominant component of the intestinal microflora are bifidobacteria. However, infants born by caesarean section possess clostridia as a dominant intestinal bacterial group. The aim of the present study was to determine whether bifidobacteria and clostridia are able to grow on human milk(More)
Defense against pathogens in multicellular eukaryotes depends on intracellular immune receptors, yet surveillance by these receptors is poorly understood. Several plant nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) immune receptors carry fusions with other protein domains. The Arabidopsis RRS1-R NB-LRR protein carries a C-terminal WRKY DNA binding domain(More)
The innate immune system allows plants to respond to potential pathogens in an appropriate manner while minimizing damage and energy costs. Photosynthesis provides a sustained energy supply and, therefore, has to be integrated into the defense against pathogens. Although changes in photosynthetic activity during infection have been described, a detailed and(More)
Plants recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) via cell surface-localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), leading to PRR-triggered immunity (PTI). The Arabidopsis cytoplasmic kinase BIK1 is a downstream substrate of several PRR complexes. How plant PTI is negatively regulated is not fully understood. Here, we identify the protein(More)
Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) is a membrane peptidase expressed in the prostate, central and peripheral nervous system, kidney, small intestine, and tumor-associated neovasculature. The GCPII form expressed in the central nervous system, termed NAALADase, is responsible for the cleavage of N-acetyl-L-aspartyl-L-glutamate (NAAG) yielding free(More)
beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase from a filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae is a secreted enzyme known to be an important component of the binary chitinolytic system. Cloning of the hexA gene and sequencing of the enzyme revealed its unique preproprotein structure. While the enzyme's zincin-like and catalytic domain had significant similarities with members of(More)