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The rapid production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst is a conserved signaling output in immunity across kingdoms. In plants, perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by surface-localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) activates the NADPH oxidase RBOHD by hitherto unknown mechanisms. Here, we show that RBOHD exists in complex(More)
Plants rely heavily on receptor-like kinases (RLKs) for perception and integration of external and internal stimuli. The Arabidopsis regulatory leucine-rich repeat RLK (LRR-RLK) BAK1 is involved in steroid hormone responses, innate immunity, and cell death control. Here, we describe the differential regulation of three different BAK1-dependent signaling(More)
The plant immune system is activated by microbial patterns that are detected as nonself molecules. Such patterns are recognized by immune receptors that are cytoplasmic or localized at the plasma membrane. Cell surface receptors are represented by receptor-like kinases (RLKs) that frequently contain extracellular leucine-rich repeats and an intracellular(More)
Accelerated gene evolution is a hallmark of pathogen adaptation following a host jump. Here, we describe the biochemical basis of adaptation and specialization of a plant pathogen effector after its colonization of a new host. Orthologous protease inhibitor effectors from the Irish potato famine pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, and its sister species,(More)
The tomato receptor-like protein (RLP) Ve1 mediates resistance to the vascular fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae. To identify the proteins required for Ve1 function, we transiently expressed and immunopurified functional Ve1-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) from Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, followed by mass spectrometry. This resulted in the(More)
Defense against pathogens in multicellular eukaryotes depends on intracellular immune receptors, yet surveillance by these receptors is poorly understood. Several plant nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) immune receptors carry fusions with other protein domains. The Arabidopsis RRS1-R NB-LRR protein carries a C-terminal WRKY DNA binding domain(More)
The downy mildew pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) is a filamentous oomycete that invades plant cells via sophisticated but poorly understood structures called haustoria. Haustoria are separated from the host cell cytoplasm and surrounded by an extrahaustorial membrane (EHM) of unknown origin. In some interactions, including Hpa-Arabidopsis,(More)
Innate immunity relies on the perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) located on the host cell's surface. Many plant PRRs are kinases. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis receptor kinase EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR), which perceives the elf18 peptide derived from bacterial elongation factor Tu, is(More)
The complete covalent structure of a novel boar DQH sperm surface protein resistant to many classical procedures of enzymatic fragmentation was determined. The relative molecular mass of the major form of this protein determined by ESI-MS and MALDI-MS was 13,065.2+/-1.0 and 13,065.1, respectively. However, additional peaks differing by 162 Da (i.e., minus(More)
BACKGROUND Penicillin G acylase of Escherichia coli (PGAEc) is a commercially valuable enzyme for which efficient bacterial expression systems have been developed. The enzyme is used as a catalyst for the hydrolytic production of beta-lactam nuclei or for the synthesis of semi-synthetic penicillins such as ampicillin, amoxicillin and cephalexin. To become a(More)