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Interhemispheric inhibition is thought to mediate cortical rivalry between the two hemispheres through callosal input. The long-lasting form of this inhibition is believed to operate via γ-aminobutyric acid type B (GABA(B)) receptors, but the process is poorly understood at the cellular level. We found that the firing of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in rat(More)
Inhibitory projections from the striatum and globus pallidus converge onto GABAergic projection neurons of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr). Based on existing structural and functional evidence, these pathways are likely to differentially regulate the firing of SNr neurons. We sought to investigate the functional differences in inhibitory(More)
The striatum is a site of integration of neural pathways involved in reinforcement learning. Traditionally, inputs from cerebral cortex are thought to be reinforced by dopaminergic afferents signaling the occurrence of biologically salient sensory events. Here, we detail an alternative route for short-latency sensory-evoked input to the striatum requiring(More)
Tonically active neurons in the primate striatum, believed to be cholinergic interneurons (CINs), respond to sensory stimuli with a pronounced pause in firing. Although inhibitory and neuromodulatory mechanisms have been implicated, it is not known how sensory stimuli induce firing pauses in CINs in vivo. Here, we used intracellular recordings in(More)
One of the principal goals of glycoprotein research is to correlate glycan structure and function. Such correlation is necessary in order for one to understand the mechanisms whereby glycoprotein structure elaborates the functions of myriad proteins. The accurate comparison of glycoforms and quantification of glycosites are essential steps in this(More)
Cholinergic interneurons have emerged as one of the key players controlling network functions in the striatum. Extracellularly recorded cholinergic interneurons acquire characteristic responses to sensory stimuli during reward-related learning, including a pause and subsequent rebound in spiking. However, the precise underlying cellular mechanisms have(More)
Pauses in the tonic firing of striatal cholinergic interneurons emerge during reward-related learning and are triggered by neutral cues which develop behavioural significance. In a previous in vivo study we have proposed that these pauses in firing may be due to intrinsically generated afterhyperpolarisations (AHPs) evoked by excitatory synaptic inputs,(More)
Processing of sensory information from both sides of the body requires coordination of sensory input between the two hemispheres. This coordination is achieved by transcallosal (interhemispheric) fibers that course though the upper cortical layers. In a recent study by Palmer et al. (2012), we investigated the role of this interhemispheric input on the(More)
Cortico-striatal spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) is modulated by dopamine in vitro. The present study investigated STDP in vivo using alternative procedures for modulating dopaminergic inputs. Postsynaptic potentials (PSP) were evoked in intracellularly recorded spiny neurons by electrical stimulation of the contralateral motor cortex. PSPs often(More)
Fast-spiking interneurones (FSIs) constitute a prominent part of the inhibitory microcircuitry of the striatum; however, little is known about their recruitment by synaptic inputs in vivo. Here, we report that, in contrast to cholinergic interneurones (CINs), FSIs (n = 9) recorded in urethane-anaesthetized rats exhibit Down-to-Up state transitions very(More)