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We have developed a new, simple and effective method for extraction of fungal genomic DNA. The initial steps involved suspension of freeze-dried mycelium in buffer containing sodium dodecyl sulphate, detachment of DNA from polysaccharides by mild shearing, NaCl precipitation of polysaccharides and protein, chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation.(More)
The fungal family Clavicipitaceae includes plant symbionts and parasites that produce several psychoactive and bioprotective alkaloids. The family includes grass symbionts in the epichloae clade (Epichloë and Neotyphodium species), which are extraordinarily diverse both in their host interactions and in their alkaloid profiles. Epichloae produce alkaloids(More)
Epidemiological studies, using the probe Ca3, have shown that in a given patient population a single cluster of genetically related Candida albicans isolates usually predominates. The authors have investigated whether these local clusters are part of a single group, geographically widespread and highly prevalent as an aetiological agent of various types of(More)
Analyzing Candida albicans isolates from different human and animal individuals by Ca3 fingerprinting, we obtained no evidence for host-specific genotypes and for the existence of species-specific lineages, even though a certain degree of separation between human and animal isolates was found. Therefore, animals could potentially serve as reservoirs for(More)
Insulin is the most commonly used growth factor for sustaining cell growth and viability in serum-free Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell cultures. In the present study insulin and IGF-1 analogue (LongR(3)) were compared for their ability to support growth, viability, and production of two serum-free CHO cell lines expressing recombinant protein. The first(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Neotyphodium lolii is a fungal endophyte of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), improving grass fitness through production of bioactive alkaloids. Neotyphodium species can also affect growth and physiology of their host grasses (family Poaceae, sub-family Pooideae), but little is known about the mechanisms. This study examined the(More)
The relationships of the distributions of the insect and mammalian mycotoxins, lolitrem B and ergovaline, and the insect-feeding deterrent, peramine, with the distribution of fungal mycelium were investigated in three genotypes of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) infected with the endophyte Neotyphodium lolii. In planta levels and distribution of the(More)
Hyphae ofNeurospora crassa, like many other tipgrowing organisms, drive endogenous electric currents through themselves such that positive charges flow into the apical region and exit from the trunk. In order to identify the ions that carry the current, the complete growth medium was replaced by media lacking various constituents. Omission of K+ or of(More)
The ALS (agglutinin-like sequence) gene family encodes proteins that play a role in adherence of the yeast Candida albicans to endothelial and epithelial cells. The proteins are proposed as virulence factors for this important fungal pathogen of humans. We analyzed 66 C. albicans strains, representing a worldwide collection of 266 infection-causing(More)
Neotyphodium lolii is a fungal endosymbiont of the ryegrass Lolium perenne. Its growth is tightly controlled and synchronized with that of the plant. How the symbionts communicate is largely unknown but failure of the endophyte to elicit a defense response is considered crucial for successful symbiosis. In silver-stained two-dimensional gels of protein(More)