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We review definitions and basic properties of operads, PROPs and algebras over these structures. Dedicated to the memory of Jakub Jan Ryba (1765–1815) Operads involve an abstraction of the family {Map(X, X)}n≥0 of composable functions of several variables together with an action of permutations of variables. As such, they were originally studied as a tool(More)
The paper presents the currently available possibilities for using a locked intramedullary nail in femoral lengthening. Additional fixation of the bone lengthened over an intramedullary nail permits earlier removal of the external distracter, as soon as the planned bone lengthening is obtained. Even though the necessary surgery is more extensive, the(More)
Current methods of treatment for anisomelia are based on distraction osteogenesis. This involves creating callus during gradual distraction using an external fixator. The lengthening of long bones by Ilizarov's method requires keeping the external fixator in place for a long period of time, which increases the risk of complications, such as pin - track(More)
Background. Extensory contracture of the knee joint is a constant problem during thigh lengthening procedures. Its occurrence is dependent on such factors as rehabilitation, the construction of the Ilizarov apparatus, the extent of the lengthening, and the etiology of the shortening. <br /> Material and methods. Between 1998 and 2001, 34 children were(More)
Background. In recent years multiple injuries to the tibial shaft have become increasingly common. High-energy impacts cause comminuted fractures, often accompanied by damage to neural and vascular structures, muscle, and surface layers. The key to good healing is preserving normal blood supply. Serious damage to the tibia should be treated by external(More)
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