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Glutathione (GSH) is a major antioxidant that protects tissues from free radical injury. Glutamine augments host defenses and may be important in GSH synthesis. Acetaminophen toxicity causes hepatic GSH depletion and hepatic necrosis. The authors hypothesized that glutamine-supplemented nutrition would enhance liver GSH stores and diminish hepatic injury(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of phosphocreatine (PCr) depletion on myocellular energetics. DESIGN Randomized controlled study. SETTING University laboratory. MATERIALS Thirty-eight adult male Wistar rats (110-121 g). METHODS The poorly metabolized creatine analogue beta-guanidinopropionic acid, (beta-GPA, 2% of a gel diet) was fed to the rats(More)
BACKGROUND Limited resources prevent hospitals from having all patients formally evaluated by a nutrition expert. Thus, hospitals rely on nutrition-screening tools to identify malnourished patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a nutrition-screening protocol, prealbumin (PAB), retinol binding protein (RBP), and albumin(More)
Although it is well known that malnourished patients who become septic have an increased risk of organ failure and death compared to normally nourished individuals, the pathological processe(s) underlying this observation are unknown. To evaluate one possible explanation for this finding, we tested the hypothesis that malnutrition depresses hepatic(More)
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are thought to play a role in mediating weight loss, net protein catabolism, anorexia, and fever after infection or injury. Because IL-1 and IL-6 can be synthesized in the brain and have been shown to be increased in central nervous system (CNS) infections, we investigated the metabolic consequences of prolonged(More)
Sepsis increases phosphocreatine (PCr) breakdown and reduces PCr stores in skeletal muscle. To determine if systemic infection impairs mitochondrial function, in vivo 13P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P MRS) studies of the gastrocnemius muscle were performed in virus-free male Wistar rats 24 or 48 hr after cecal ligation and 18-gauge needle single(More)
Myocellular sodium homeostasis is commonly disrupted during critical illness for unknown reasons. Recent data suggest that changes in intracellular sodium content and the amount of ATP provided by glycolysis are closely related. The role of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in providing fuel to the Na(+)-K(+) pump was investigated in resting rat(More)
BACKGROUND Reactive oxygen metabolites contribute to tissue destruction in a wide variety of diseases. Glutathione, a potent endogenous antioxidant, neutralizes the destructive potential of free radicals, but this tripeptide may be depleted during illness. We hypothesized that glutathione deficiency would amplify organ dysfunction after shock in rats. (More)
Critical illness is associated with both immunosuppression and glutathione deficiency. We determined if in vivo depletion of glutathione would adversely affect immune status. Rats with normal glutathione levels and those with glutathione stores depleted by diethyl maleate underwent analysis of splenocyte function and mesenteric lymph node lymphocyte(More)
BACKGROUND After massive small bowel resection, the remnant intestine undergoes compensatory adaptation. We tested the hypothesis that glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is an endogenous mediator of postresection intestinal adaptation. METHODS Rats were allocated to 1 of 4 groups: groups 1 and 2 rats underwent mid-small bowel transection and reanastomosis;(More)