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Per os infectivity factors PIF1 (Ac119) and PIF2 (Ac022), like P74, are essential for oral infection of lepidopteran larval hosts of Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). Here we show that Ac115 also is a PIF (PIF3) and that, unlike PIF1 and PIF2, it does not mediate specific binding of AcMNPV occlusion-derived virus (ODV) to midgut target(More)
Ac150 is expressed late during infection of cultured lepidopteran insect cells by Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus. The Ac150 gene product is predicted to have a molecular mass of 11 161 Da and consists of a hydrophobic N terminus and a single 'peritrophin-A'-like domain, connected by a short region of charged amino acids. An Ac150(More)
Effects of infections by the ciliate Lambornella clarki on larval populations of its mosquito host Aedes sierrensis were examined in laboratory and field studies. When host populations developed with sufficient food, mortality from parasites was additive and reduced the number of emerging mosquitoes. For food-limited populations, mortality was compensatory(More)
Baculoviruses establish systemic infections within susceptible insect hosts, even though host tissues are surrounded by basal laminae, extracellular matrices that exclude particles smaller than these viruses. Using a recombinant Autographa californica M nuclear polyhedrosis virus containing a lacZ reporter gene under the control of a constitutive promoter,(More)
Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) can infect and kill a wide range of larval lepidopteran hosts, but the dosage required to achieve mortal infection varies greatly. Using a reporter gene construct, we identified key differences between AcMNPV pathogenesis in Heliothis virescens and Helicoverpa zea, a fully permissive and a(More)
The pe38 gene product of Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) has been shown to be involved in transcriptionally transactivating viral genes and augmenting viral DNA replication in transient assays. To assess the role of pe38 during infection, we generated a knockout virus, Delta pe38-E9/E9, in which the pe38 open reading frame was(More)
Among the nucleopolyhedroviruses (Baculoviridae), the occlusion-derived virus (ODV), which initiates infection in host insects, may contain only a single nucleocapsid per virion (the SNPVs) or one to many nucleocapsids per virion (the MNPVs), but the significance of this difference is unclear. To gain insight into the biological relevance of these different(More)
Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), the type species of the Nucleopolyhedrovirus genus (Baculoviridae family), has two highly unusual traits shared by several baculovirus species. First, the occlusion-derived virus (ODV) that establishes primary infection in the midgut following its ingestion by host larvae contains multiple(More)
P74, an envelope protein of the occlusion-derived virus (ODV) of Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), is critical for oral infection of Trichoplusia ni larvae. The role of P74 during primary infection, however, is unknown. Here we provide evidence that P74 facilitates binding of AcMNPV ODV to a specific receptor within the larval midgut(More)
Nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs) (Baculoviridae) produce fatal infections in larval lepidopteran insects. NPVs are designated SNPVs or MNPVs based on whether the occlusion-derived virus (ODV) that initiates primary midgut infections contains single (S) or multiple (M) nucleocapsids. The principal consequence of this ODV packaging is that primary target cells(More)