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Knowledge of adaptations to changes in speed and mode of progression (walking-running) in human locomotion is important for an understanding of underlying neural control mechanisms and allows a comparison with more detailed animal studies. Leg movements and muscle activity patterns were studied in ten healthy males (19-29 yr) during level walking (0.4-3.0 m(More)
The prediction that selection affects the genome in a locus-specific way also affecting flanking neutral variation, known as genetic hitchhiking, enables the use of polymorphic markers in noncoding regions to detect the footprints of selection. However, as the strength of the selective footprint on a locus depends on the distance from the selected site and(More)
In stark contrast to other species within the Salmonidae family, phylogeographic information on European grayling, Thymallus thymallus, is virtually nonexistent. In this paper, we utilized mitochondrial DNA polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (mtDNA PCR-RFLP) and sequence variation to infer the postglacial dispersal routes of(More)
The phylogeography of an endangered salmonid, European grayling (Thymallus thymallus), was studied based on analysis of 17 nuclear microsatellite DNA loci. In agreement with earlier mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) studies, phylogenetic relationships of the populations suggested that northern Europe was colonized from two distinct Pleistocene refugia. Furthermore,(More)
The function of lumbar back muscles was studied by relating their activity patterns to trunk movements in 7 healthy adult males during normal walking (1.0-2.5 m/s) and running (2.0-7.0 m/s) on a treadmill. The movements of the trunk in the sagittal and frontal planes were recorded with a Selspot optoelectronic system using infrared light emitting diodes as(More)
In this study the variation in ground reaction force parameters was investigated with respect to adaptations to speed and mode of progression, and to type of foot-strike. Twelve healthy male subjects were studied during walking (1.0-3.0 m s-1) and running (1.5-6.0 m s-1). The subjects were selected with respect to foot-strike pattern during running. Six(More)
Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) plays a key role in orchestrating the complex events involved in inflammation and immunity. Accordingly, TNF-alpha has been implicated in a wide range of autoimmune and infectious diseases, but also in conditions such as obesity and insulin resistance. The regulation of TNF-alpha expression in man is indicated to be(More)
OBJECTIVE Inflammation plays an important role in atherosclerosis. One of the most potent pro-inflammatory cytokines is tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), a cytokine identified to have a pathogenic role in chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of the study was to evaluate the importance of TNF-alpha in atherogenesis.(More)
BACKGROUND Chemotherapy drug distribution varies greatly among individual patients. Therefore, we developed an individualised fluorouracil, epirubicin, cyclophosphamide (FEC) regimen to improve outcomes in patients with high-risk early breast cancer. We then did a randomised trial to compare this individually tailored FEC regimen with conventional adjuvant(More)
BACKGROUND Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity. OBJECTIVE To determine whether cardiovascular morbidity differs following initiation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists compared with an antagonist. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Pooled data from six phase 3 prospective randomized(More)