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Human glioblastoma cells secrete a peptide, termed glioblastoma-derived T cell suppressor factor (G-TsF), which has suppressive effects on interleukin-2-dependent T cell growth. As shown here, complementary DNA for G-TsF reveals that G-TsF shares 71% amino acid homology with transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). In analogy to TGF-beta it is apparently(More)
The neutrophil-activating factor (NAF) purified from the conditioned medium of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human monocytes was sequenced and found to consist of 72 amino acids: SAKELRCQCIKTYSKPFHPKFIKELRVIESGPHCANTEIIVKLSDGRELCLDPKENWVQRVVEKFLKRA ENS. Purified preparations of natural NAF contained, in addition to this main form, minor amounts of three(More)
Increasing evidence implicates the interaction of the EphB4 receptor with its preferred ligand, ephrinB2, in pathological forms of angiogenesis and in tumorigenesis. To identify the molecular determinants of the unique specificity of EphB4 for ephrinB2, we determined the crystal structure of the ligand binding domain of EphB4 in complex with the(More)
SID 791, a bicyclam inhibiting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication in vitro by blocking virus entry into cells, is an effective inhibitor of virus production and of depletion of human CD4+ T cells in HIV type 1-infected SCID-hu Thy/Liv mice. Steady levels of 100 ng of SID 791 or higher per ml in plasma resulted in statistically significant(More)
We have developed standardized procedures and practices for infection of SCID-hu Thy/Liv mice with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 for the prophylactic administration of antiviral compounds and for evaluation of the antiviral effect in vivo. Endpoint analyses included quantitation of viral load by intracellular p24 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, DNA(More)
Circular dichroism (CD) spectra of C-terminal deletion mutants of the HIV-1 Rev protein, Rev M9 delta 14 (missing aa 68-112) and Rev M11 delta 14 (lacking aa 92-112), indicated that Rev contains 46-49 residues in alpha-helical conformation within the N-terminal 71 or 95 amino acids of the 116 residue protein. Complexation with a 40-nucleotide fragment of(More)
To investigate the degree of similarity between picornavirus proteases, we cloned the genomic cDNAs of an enterovirus, echovirus 9 (strain Barty), and two rhinoviruses, serotypes 1A and 14LP, and determined the nucleotide sequence of the region which, by analogy to poliovirus, encodes the protease. The nucleotide sequence of the region encoding the(More)
Currently available heart valve replacements are limited in long-term performance or fail due to leaflet thickening, lack of growth or remodeling potential. In order to address these issues, it is necessary to mimic multiple factors of the native valvular extracellular matrix (ECM) such as architecture, mechanical behavior and biochemical signals. Here, we(More)
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) are excellent and commonly used techniques for imaging the topography of living cells with high resolution. We present a direct comparison of AFM and SICM for imaging microvilli, which are small features on the surface of living cells, and for imaging the shape of whole cells. The(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Endothelial cell stiffness plays a key role in endothelium-dependent control of vascular tone and arterial blood pressure. Actin polymerization and distribution of microfilaments is essential for mechanical cell stiffness. Chorein, a protein encoded by the VPS13A gene, defective in chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc), is involved in neuronal cell(More)