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BACKGROUND Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) is a novel human prion disease caused by infection with the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Epidemiological evidence does not suggest that sporadic CJD is transmitted from person to person via blood transfusion, but this evidence may not apply to vCJD. We aimed to identify whether vCJD is(More)
To validate the provisional findings of a number of smaller studies and explore additional determinants of characteristic diagnostic investigation results across the entire clinical spectrum of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), an international collaborative study was undertaken comprising 2451 pathologically confirmed (definite) patients. We(More)
In this report, we describe the clinical and neuropathological features of a case of familial frontotemporal dementia (FTD), with onset at 58 years of age and disease duration of 10 years, associated with a novel mutation, Q336R, in the tau gene (tau). In vitro studies concerning the properties of tau proteins bearing this mutation, with respect to(More)
A collaborative study of human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies has been carried out from 1993 to 2000 and includes data from 10 national registries, the majority in Western Europe. In this study, we present analyses of predictors of survival in sporadic (n = 2304), iatrogenic (n = 106) and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (n = 86) and in cases(More)
As of December 31, 1998, 35 deaths had been attributed to new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (nvCJD) in the United Kingdom, of which 33 cases had been neuropathologically confirmed and 2 classified as probable nvCJD. Fifteen cases were male and 20 female. The median illness duration was 14 months (range, 8-38 months) and the median age at death was 29(More)
BACKGROUND It is 10 years since the detection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 14-3-3 was included in the diagnostic criteria for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) by the WHO. Since that time, other CSF proteins, such as S100b and tau protein, have been proposed as surrogate markers for sCJD. The authors aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of each(More)
Human prion diseases can occur as an idiopathic disorder (sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease) or can be acquired, as is the case for variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. These disorders are characterized by the accumulation of a protease-resistant form of the host-encoded prion protein termed PrP(Sc) in the brains of affected individuals. PrP(Sc) has been(More)
BACKGROUND In April, 1996, ten cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) with an apparently new clinicopathological phenotype were published and it was suggested that these new variant cases (nvCJD) might be causally linked to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). There have now been 21 cases of nvCJD in the UK and one case in France. We report clinical(More)
The era of iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) has nearly closed; only occasional cases with exceptionally long incubation periods are still appearing. The principal sources of these outbreaks are contaminated growth hormone (226 cases) and dura mater grafts (228 cases) derived from human cadavers with undiagnosed CJD infections; a small number of(More)
OBJECTIVE Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), a novel form of human prion disease, was recognized in 1996. The disease affected a younger cohort than sporadic CJD, and the early clinical course was dominated by psychiatric and sensory symptoms. In an attempt to aid diagnosis and establish standardization between surveillance networks, diagnostic(More)