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Simulating the motion of realistic, large, dense crowds of autonomous agents is still a challenge for the computer graphics community. Typical approaches either resemble particle simulations (where agents lack orientation controls) or are conservative in the range of human motion possible (agents lack psychological state and aren't allowed to 'push' each(More)
We analyzed Neal Stephenson's novel Snow Crash for all references to avatars. This analysis is documented here, including a comparison of the Snow Crash avatars to the current state of real-time virtual human research. The avatar characteristics discussed include appearance, clothing and attachments, ethnicity, locomotion, body actions, forms of(More)
Smart avatars are virtual human representations controlled by real people. Given instructions interactively, smart avatars can act as autonomous or reactive agents. During a real-time simulation, a user should be able to dynamically refine his or her avatar's behavior in reaction to simulated stimuli without having to undertake a lengthy off-line(More)
Most current crowd simulators animate homogeneous crowds, but include underlying parameters that can be tuned to create variations within the crowd. These parameters, however, are specific to the crowd models and may be difficult for an animator or naïve user to use. We propose mapping these parameters to personality traits. In this paper, we extend the(More)
Crowd simulation models are currently lacking a commonly accepted validation method. In this paper, we propose level of presence achieved by a human in a virtual environment (VE) as a metric for virtual crowd behavior. Using experimental evidence from the presence literature and the results of a pilot experiment that we ran, we explore the egocentric(More)
There are many important factors in the design of evaluation studies for systems that generate animations of American Sign Language (ASL) sentences, and techniques for evaluating natural language generation of written texts are not easily adapted to ASL. When conducting user-based evaluations, several cultural and linguistic characteristics of members of(More)