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Although bacterial superinfection in viral respiratory disease is a clinically well documented phenomenon, the pathogenic mechanisms are still poorly understood. Recent studies have revealed some of the mechanisms involved. Physical damage to respiratory cells as a result of viral infection may lead to opportunistic adherence of bacteria. Enhanced bacterial(More)
BACKGROUND Modification of the intestinal microbiota by administration of probiotic bacteria may be a potential approach to prevent allergic disease. We aimed to study primary prevention of allergic disease in high-risk children by pre- and postnatal supplementation of selected probiotic bacteria. METHODS In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled(More)
BACKGROUND Among the lower respiratory tract infections during infancy requiring hospitalization, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis is the most frequent disease entity. Nevertheless treatment remains controversial. METHODS A poll among the European Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases (ESPID) members was conducted to determine the(More)
BACKGROUND Decreased exposure to microbial stimuli has been proposed to be involved in the increased prevalence of atopic disease. Such a relationship was indicated by enhanced presence of typical probiotic bacteria in the intestinal flora correlating with reduced prevalence of atopic disease. Recent clinical trials suggested that probiotic bacteria may(More)
OBJECTIVE To calculate both medical consumption and socioeconomic effects related to hospitalization for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in the Netherlands. METHODS During the winter seasons of 1998 to 2000, parents of all patients hospitalized for RSV in three secondary care hospitals were asked to fill out questionnaires focusing on the 2(More)
We sent a questionnaire to all members of the European Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases and to all delegates of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine to determine existing policies for prevention of neonatal group B streptococcal (GBS) infection in Europe. The incidence of GBS colonization in pregnant women and of neonatal GBS infection(More)
Cephalhematomas are subperiosteal blood collections occurring in newborns secondary to trauma at birth. They develop within a few days and are subsequently resorbed. Infection of a cephalhematoma is unusual and caused most often by colonization of the hematoma during bacteremia or by direct inoculation secondary to trauma. Less than 10 patients with primary(More)
To determine the contribution of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to cerebral edema formation in bacterial meningitis, we used a VEGF neutralizing antibody to block VEGF in rabbits, following induction of meningitis by intracisternal inoculation with 10(9) heat-killed pneumococci. At 8 h, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) VEGF was significantly elevated in(More)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of respiratory tract infections in infants, with remarkable variability in disease severity. Factors determining severity of disease in previously healthy infants are still unclear. It was hypothesized that disease severity is correlated with viral load in primary RSV infection. Infants of a healthy birth(More)
Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), a cytotoxic protein contained in the granules of eosinophils, has been suggested as having an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. To determine whether ECP plays a similar role in bronchiolitis, we tested samples of nasopharyngeal secretions, obtained from a group of 47 children with various forms of illness(More)