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The prevalence of mild and severe radiological osteoarthritis was investigated in a random sample of 6585 inhabitants of a Dutch village. Radiographs were graded 0-4 according to the criteria described by Kellgren and Lawrence. The prevalence of radiological osteoarthritis increased strongly with age and was highest for cervical spine (peak: men 84.8%,(More)
Contrary to what common sense makes us believe, deliberation without attention has recently been suggested to produce better decisions in complex situations than deliberation with attention. Based on differences between cognitive processes of experts and novices, we hypothesized that experts make in fact better decisions after consciously thinking about(More)
Since aortic calcification is seen on X-rays of the prelumbar region in many patients, its relation with cardiovascular disease (CVD) was investigated in a prospective study in The Netherlands. X-rays were taken of 1359 men and 1598 women, in 1975-78. In the subsequent 9 years, 50 men and 33 women died from CVD. The prevalence of aortic calcification was(More)
CONTEXT Diagnostic errors have been associated with bias in clinical reasoning. Empirical evidence on the cognitive mechanisms underlying biases and effectiveness of educational strategies to counteract them is lacking. OBJECTIVES To investigate whether recent experience with clinical problems provokes availability bias (overestimation of the likelihood(More)
Immunosuppression with cyclosporin after renal transplantation is associated with better graft survival than is azathioprine treatment. However, nephrotoxicity and other side-effects have led to regimens that change treatment to azathioprine shortly after transplantation. Conversion has beneficial effects in the short term on renal function and(More)
OBJECTIVE Each year over 1.5 million health care professionals attend emergency care courses. Despite high stakes for patients and extensive resources involved, little evidence exists on the quality of assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of commonly used formats in assessing emergency care skills. METHODS(More)
Simulation games are becoming increasingly popular in education, but more insight in their critical design features is needed. This study investigated the effects of fidelity of open patient cases in adjunct to an instructional e-module on students' cognitive skills and motivation. We set up a three-group randomized post-test-only design: a control group(More)
Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) burden patients and health services due to large quantities of consultations and medical interventions. The aim of this study is to determine which elements of communication in non-psychiatric specialist MUPS care influence health outcomes. Systematic search in PubMed, PsycINFO and Embase. Data extraction(More)
BACKGROUND Oxidative stress and disturbances in serotonergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission may play a role in the pathophysiology of delirium. AIMS In this study, we investigated levels of amino acids, amino acid ratios and levels of homovanillic acid (HVA) as indicators for oxidative stress and disturbances in neurotransmission. METHODS Plasma(More)
INTRODUCTION Training emergency care skills is critical for patient safety but cost intensive. Serious games have been proposed as an engaging self-directed learning tool for complex skills. The objective of this study was to compare the cognitive skills and motivation of medical residents who only used a course manual as preparation for classroom training(More)