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apoE-deficient mice have been created by homologous recombination in ES cells. On a low fat, low cholesterol chow diet these animals have plasma cholesterol levels of 494 mg/dl compared with 60 mg/dl in control animals, and when challenged with a high fat Western-type diet, these animals have plasma cholesterol levels of 1821 mg/dl compared with 132 mg/dl(More)
Focal recruitment of monocytes and lymphocytes is one of the earliest detectable cellular responses in the formation of lesions of atherosclerosis. This localized accumulation of leukocytes is a multistep process in which the endothelium remains intact and may regulate leukocyte recruitment by expressing specific adhesion molecules. To examine the(More)
UNLABELLED Background- Variation in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) among individuals is a complex genetic trait involving multiple genes and gene-environment interactions. METHODS AND RESULTS In a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic variants influencing LDL-C in an isolated population from Kosrae, we observed associations for SNPs in the(More)
Electrophoretic studies of human apoE have shown that it is composed of numerous isoprotein components (1-6). The complexity of apoE results from post-trans-lational modification with carbohydrate chains containing sialic acid (7, 8) and from genetic polymorphism in the human population (3, 8-10). The early genetic models could not explain satisfactorily(More)
Primary and secondary hypertriglyceridemia is common in the general population, but the biochemical basis for this disease is largely unknown. With the use of transgenic technology, two lines of mice were created that express the human apolipoprotein CIII gene. One of these mouse lines with 100 copies of the gene was found to express large amounts of the(More)
It has been argued that the limited genetic diversity and reduced allelic heterogeneity observed in isolated founder populations facilitates discovery of loci contributing to both Mendelian and complex disease. A strong founder effect, severe isolation, and substantial inbreeding have dramatically reduced genetic diversity in natives from the island of(More)
Endothelial cells play a critical role in thromboregulation by virtue of a surface-connected fibrinolytic system. Cultured endothelial cells synthesize and secrete tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) which can bind to at least two discrete sites on the cell surface. These binding sites preserve the catalytic activity of t-PA and protect it from its(More)
Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) is a common inherited lipid disorder, affecting 1 to 2 percent of the population in Westernized societies. Individuals with FCHL have large quantities of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) and develop premature coronary heart disease. A mouse model displaying some of the features of(More)
To determine the physiological role of apolipoprotein (apo) A-IV, knockout mice were created by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells. In apoA-IV knockout mice, plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels were reduced 25% and 44%, respectively, compared with controls. These changes were accounted for by decreased high density (HDL) and very low density(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to examine genetic factors responsible for metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis in a setting of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor deficiency in a cross between C57BL/6J (B6) and PERA/Ei (PERA) inbred mouse strains. METHODS AND RESULTS Comparison of metabolic phenotypes in B6 and PERA strains revealed the PERA(More)