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We examined cell size correlations between tissues, and cell size to body mass relationships in passerine birds, amphibians and mammals. The size correlated highly between all cell types in birds and amphibians; mammalian tissues clustered by size correlation in three tissue groups. Erythrocyte size correlated well with the volume of other cell types in(More)
Optimal allocation of energy to growth, reproduction and storage was considered for perennial plants differing in the proportion of vegetative structures persisting over winter and/or in the amount of resources which can be relocated to storage before abscission of some organs. It was found that for every mortality level there exists a critical proportion(More)
Two hypotheses can explain the overproduction of zygotes. Bet-hedging assumes that optimal brood size varies unpredictably among breeding attempts. Excess zygotes are produced so that the number of independent offspring can be flexibly adjusted downward to the optimum number for that attempt. Selective abortion suggests that parents overproduce zygotes,(More)
Basically all organisms can be classified as determinate growers if their growth stops or almost stops at maturation, or indeterminate growers if growth is still intense after maturation. Adult size for determinate growers is relatively well defined, whereas in indeterminate growers usually two measures are used: size at maturation and asymptotic size. The(More)
The anticancer drug etoposide (VP 16-213, 1) contains a highly strained trans-fused gamma-lactone. This functionality is readily metabolized to an inactive ring-opened hydroxy acid (2). To prevent this detoxification of the drug and to investigate whether the lactone is essential for drug activity, we synthesized a cyclic ether analogue of etoposide (3) and(More)
mutagenic primers are used in this method, it is important to note that they are equally mismatched to both the wild-type and mutant alleles. The specificity is introduced by extension of the primers, which introduces a different base at the first step. This is an important feature of the assay design, removing any possibility of allele-specific(More)
A specific quality of the discussion about innovation indices (scoreboards) is that more often than not the subject is dealt with from a purely technical point of view. Such a narrow approach silently assumes that indices used as a policy tool are an accurate reflection of the phenomenon and should not be questioned, and also that the whole discussion(More)
Respiratory gas exchange in insects occurs via a branching tracheal system. The entrances to the air-filled tracheae are the spiracles, which are gate-like structures in the exoskeleton. The open or closed state of spiracles defines the three possible gas exchange patterns of insects. In resting insects, spiracles may open and close over time in a(More)