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Anomalous flowering of the Antirrhinum majus mutant squamosa (squa) is characterized by excessive formation of bracts and the production of relatively few and often malformed or incomplete flowers. To study the function of squamosa in the commitment of an inflorescence lateral meristem to floral development, the gene was cloned and its genomic structure, a(More)
The Arabidopsis thaliana SPL gene family represents a group of structurally diverse genes encoding putative transcription factors found apparently only in plants. The distinguishing characteristic of the SPL gene family is the SBP-box encoding a conserved protein domain of 76 amino acids in length, the SBP-domain, which is responsible for the interaction(More)
In the last few years, more than 500 primate major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) genes or parts thereof have been sequenced. The extraordinary sequence information is used here to draw conclusions about the manner of Mhc evolution. The Mhc genes are found to evolve at a relatively slow rate with the regularity of a clock. It takes from 1 to 6 million(More)
According to a widely held view, the more than 300 species of haplochromine cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria (LV), East Africa, originated from a single founder species in less than 12,000 years. This view, however, does not follow from the published geological and molecular evidence. The former does indeed suggest that the LV basin dried out less than(More)
We have developed maximum likelihood (ML) methods for comparisons of nucleotide sequences from unlinked genomic regions. In the case of a single species, the ML method primarily estimates the effective population size (Ne) under both constant size and abrupt expansion conditions. In the case of two or three species, the ML method simultaneously estimates(More)
Max-Planck-Institut fOr Biologie, Abteilung Immungenetik, D-7400 Tiibingen, Federal Republic of Germany 2 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101, USA 3 TNO Primate Center, Rijswijk, The Netherlands 4 Department of Clinical Immunology, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Australia 5 Human Genetics(More)
Lake Malawi in East Africa harbours 500-1,000 endemic species of cichlid fishes, all presumably derived by adaptive radiation from a single founding population within the past two million years. The species of this 'flock' differ strikingly in their ecology and behaviour, moderately in their external morphology and very little in their molecular(More)
Using three genomic phage libraries, we isolated 26 clones from the zebrafish MHC class II B region. By restriction mapping, the clones could be arranged into six clusters, most clusters consisting of several overlapping clones. The combined clusters cover a total of 161 kb of the zebrafish class II region. Hybridization with specific probes demonstrated(More)
In contrast to the human and mouse Mhc, in which the clusters of class I and class II loci reside in close vicinity to one another, in the zebrafish, Danio rerio, they are found in different linkage groups. Chromosome walking using BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) and PAC (P1 artificial chromosome) clones reveals the zebrafish class I region to occupy(More)