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An exponential lower bound for the size of tree-like cutting planes refutations of a certain family of conjunctive normal form (CNF) formulas with polynomial size resolution refu-tations is proved. This implies an exponential separation between the tree-like versions and the dag-like versions of resolution and cutting planes. In both cases only(More)
A fragment of second-order lambda calculus (System <i>F</i>) is defined that characterizes the elementary recursive functions. Type quantification is restricted to be noninterleaved and stratified, that is, the types are assigned levels, and a quantified variable can only be instantiated by a type of smaller level, with a slightly liberalized treatment of(More)
Resolution refinements called w-resolution trees with lemmas (WRTL) and with input lemmas (WRTI) are introduced. Dag-like resolution is equivalent to both WRTL and WRTI when there is no regularity condition. For regular proofs, an exponential separation between regular dag-like resolution and both regular WRTL and regular WRTI is given. It is proved that(More)
An exponential lower bound is proved for tree-like Cutting Planes refutations of a set of clauses which has polynomial size resolution refutations. This implies an exponential separation between tree-like and dag-like proofs for both Cutting Planes and resolution; in both cases only superpolynomial separations were known before 33, 22, 11]. In order to(More)
The problem of converting deterministic finite automata into (short) regular expressions is considered. It is known that the required expression size is 2 Θ(n) in the worst case for infinite languages, and for finite languages it is n Ω(log log n) and n O(log n) , if the alphabet size grows with the number of states n of the given automaton. A new lower(More)
We deene a property of substructures of models of arithmetic, that of being length-initial , and show that sharply bounded formulae are absolute between a model and its length-initial submodels. We use this to prove independence results for some weak fragments of bounded arithmetic by constructing appropriate models as length-initial submodels of some given(More)