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Vibrio cholerae is a globally important pathogen that is endemic in many areas of the world and causes 3-5 million reported cases of cholera every year. Historically, there have been seven acknowledged cholera pandemics; recent outbreaks in Zimbabwe and Haiti are included in the seventh and ongoing pandemic. Only isolates in serogroup O1 (consisting of two(More)
There is currently great interest in developing mucosal vaccines against a variety of microbial pathogens. Mucosally induced tolerance also seems to be a promising form of immunomodulation for treating certain autoimmune diseases and allergies. Here we review the properties of the mucosal immune system and discuss advances in the development of mucosal(More)
The tracking of small avian migrants has only recently become possible by the use of small light-level geolocators, allowing the reconstruction of whole migration routes, as well as timing and speed of migration and identification of wintering areas. Such information is crucial for evaluating theories about migration strategies and pinpointing critical(More)
Ganglioside GM1 was isolated from the small intestinal mucosa of man, pig, and beef and amounted to 0.1, 2.0, and 43 nmol per g fresh weight, respectively. These differences in GM1 content were associated with a quantitatively differing ability of the mucosal cells to bind cholera toxin. Human cells bound about 15,000 toxin molecules when saturated with the(More)
The potential of sublingual (s.l.) delivery of vaccine was examined in mice. We show the existence of a dense network of dendritic cells (DCs) in the s.l. epithelium and a rapid and transient increase in the frequency of s.l. DCs after topical application of cholera toxin (CT) adjuvant under the tongue. S.l. immunization with ovalbumin and CT induced(More)
By a double-diffusion precipitation-in-gel technique, isolated cholera toxin as well as its natural toxoid were shown to be fixed and precipitated by the ganglioside G(M1) but not by any of the related glycolipids G(M3), G(M2), G(M1)-GlcNAc, G(D1a), G(D1b), G(T1), globoside, G(A1), and tetrahexoside-GlcNAc. Twenty-five nanograms of G(M1) was enough to give(More)
We performed a prospective study to examine whether the IgA antibodies against cholera that are present in breast milk protect breast-fed infants and children against colonization with Vibrio cholerae 01 and disease. Among families of patients with cholera, we collected breast milk from mothers who had not had diarrhea in the previous week and monitored(More)
After De΄s pivotal demonstration in 1959 of a diarrhoeogenic exo-enterotoxin in cell-free culture filtrates from Vibrio cholerae (of classical biotype), much insight has been gained about cholera toxin (CT), which is arguably now the best known of all microbial toxins. The subunit structure and function of CT, its receptor (the GM1 ganglioside), and its(More)
To determine the protective efficacy (PE) of three doses of oral B subunit-killed whole cell (BS-WC) or killed whole cell-only (WC) vaccines against cholera, a clinical trial was conducted among 62285 children over 2 years and adult women in rural Bangladesh. During 5 years of follow-up, there were 144 cases of cholera in the BS-WC group (PE = 49%; P <(More)