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The tracking of small avian migrants has only recently become possible by the use of small light-level geolocators, allowing the reconstruction of whole migration routes, as well as timing and speed of migration and identification of wintering areas. Such information is crucial for evaluating theories about migration strategies and pinpointing critical(More)
There is currently great interest in developing mucosal vaccines against a variety of microbial pathogens. Mucosally induced tolerance also seems to be a promising form of immunomodulation for treating certain autoimmune diseases and allergies. Here we review the properties of the mucosal immune system and discuss advances in the development of mucosal(More)
Many notions regarding the function, structure and regulation of cholera toxin expression have remained essentially unaltered in the last 15 years. At the same time, recent findings have generated additional perspectives. For example, the cholera toxin genes are now known to be carried by a non-lytic bacteriophage, a previously unsuspected condition.(More)
We performed a prospective study to examine whether the IgA antibodies against cholera that are present in breast milk protect breast-fed infants and children against colonization with Vibrio cholerae 01 and disease. Among families of patients with cholera, we collected breast milk from mothers who had not had diarrhea in the previous week and monitored(More)
Monoclonal antibodies were produced after immunization of mice with a colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line or liver metastasis membranes from a patient with colon adenocarcinoma. Many monoclonal antibodies were found to react with colorectal adenocarcinoma cells but not with normal colon mucosa, blood lymphocytes, myeloma cells or lung epithelial carcinoma(More)
Vibrio cholerae is a globally important pathogen that is endemic in many areas of the world and causes 3-5 million reported cases of cholera every year. Historically, there have been seven acknowledged cholera pandemics; recent outbreaks in Zimbabwe and Haiti are included in the seventh and ongoing pandemic. Only isolates in serogroup O1 (consisting of two(More)
BACKGROUND Decisions about the use of killed oral cholera vaccines, which confer moderate levels of direct protection to vaccinees, can depend on whether the vaccines also provide indirect (herd) protection when high levels of vaccine coverage are attained. We reanalysed data from a field trial in Bangladesh to ascertain whether there is evidence of(More)
The potential of sublingual (s.l.) delivery of vaccine was examined in mice. We show the existence of a dense network of dendritic cells (DCs) in the s.l. epithelium and a rapid and transient increase in the frequency of s.l. DCs after topical application of cholera toxin (CT) adjuvant under the tongue. S.l. immunization with ovalbumin and CT induced(More)
OBJECTIVE Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease. Autoimmune responses to low-density lipoproteins (LDL) contribute to its progression, whereas immunization with LDL may induce atheroprotective or proatherogenic responses. The objective of this study was to develop an atheroprotective vaccine by targeting a peptide of the LDL protein constituent(More)