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Fast excitatory transmission in the vertebrate central nervous system is mediated mainly by L-glutamate. On the basis of pharmacological, physiological and agonist binding properties, the ionotropic glutamate receptors are classified into NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate), AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionate) and kainate subtypes. Sequence(More)
Kainate, a glutamate receptor agonist, is a potent neuroexcitatory agent that produces epileptiform activity and selective neuronal degeneration. Binding studies using neuronal membrane homogenates or brain sections have identified sites having either high or low affinity for [3H]kainate. Here we report the cloning of a gene, GluR7, with approximately 75%(More)
A polyclonal antibody against the Na+-independent alanine-serine-cysteine transporter 1 (asc-1) was raised and the specificity of the antibody verified by Western blots performed on membranes prepared from HEK293 cells transiently transfected with the cloned murine asc-1. The antibody was then used to localize the transporter in the brain of two rodent(More)
The Ca2+ permeability of the kainate selective glutamate receptor GluR6 depends on the editing of the RNA (or DNA). The unedited version of GluR6, GluR6Q, encodes a glutamine at position 621 (Q/R site) and exhibits a Ca2+/monovalent ion permeability ratio of 1.2, while the edited version of GluR6, GluR6R, encodes an arginine at position 621 and exhibits a(More)
Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter within the mammalian CNS, playing an important role in many different functions in the brain such as learning and memory. In this study, a combination of molecular biology, X-ray structure determinations, as well as electrophysiology and binding experiments, has been used to increase our knowledge(More)
The orphan glutamate-like receptor GluRdelta2 is predominantly expressed in Purkinje cells of the central nervous system. The classification of GluRdelta2 to the ionotropic glutamate receptor family is based on sequence similarities, because GluRdelta2 does not form functional homomeric glutamate-gated ion channels in transfected cells. Studies in(More)
The X-ray structure of the ligand-binding core of the kainate receptor GluR5 (GluR5-S1S2) in complex with (S)-glutamate was determined to 1.95 A resolution. The overall GluR5-S1S2 structure comprises two domains and is similar to the related AMPA receptor GluR2-S1S2J. (S)-glutamate binds as in GluR2-S1S2J. Distinct features are observed for Ser741, which(More)
One of the most important tasks of molecular pharmacology is the deorphanization of the large number of G-protein-coupled receptors with unidentified endogenous agonists. We recently reported the cloning and analysis of expression of a novel human family C G-protein-coupled receptor, termed hGPRC6A. To identify agonists at this orphan receptor, we faced the(More)
The serotonin transporter (SERT) regulates extracellular levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) in the brain by facilitating uptake of released 5-hydroxytryptamine into neuronal cells. SERT is the target for widely used antidepressant drugs, including imipramine, fluoxetine, and (S)-citalopram, which are competitive inhibitors of the(More)