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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of progressive intellectual failure in aged humans. AD brains contain numerous amyloid plaques surrounded by dystrophic neurites, and show profound synaptic loss, neurofibrillary tangle formation and gliosis. The amyloid plaques are composed of amyloid beta-peptide (A beta), a 40-42-amino-acid fragment of(More)
The generation of acoustic communication signals is widespread across the animal kingdom, and males of many species, including Drosophilidae, produce patterned courtship songs to increase their chance of success with a female. For some animals, song structure can vary considerably from one rendition to the next; neural noise within pattern generating(More)
Optimal coding principles are implemented in many large sensory systems. They include the systematic transformation of external stimuli into a sparse and decorrelated neuronal representation, enabling a flexible readout of stimulus properties. Are these principles also applicable to size-constrained systems, which have to rely on a limited number of neurons(More)
Many animals produce pulse-like signals during acoustic communication. These signals exhibit structure on two time scales: they consist of trains of pulses that are often broadcast in packets—so called chirps. Temporal parameters of the pulse and of the chirp are decisive for female preference. Despite these signals being produced by animals from many(More)
Traditionally, perceptual decision making is studied in trained animals and carefully controlled tasks. Here, we sought to elucidate the stimulus features and their combination underlying a naturalistic behavior--female decision making during acoustic courtship in grasshoppers. Using behavioral data, we developed a model in which stimulus features were(More)
The songs of many insects exhibit precise timing as the result of repetitive and stereotyped subunits on several time scales. As these signals encode the identity of a species, time and timing are important for the recognition system that analyzes these signals. Crickets are a prominent example as their songs are built from sound pulses that are broadcast(More)
The temporal pattern of amplitude modulations (AM) is often used to recognize acoustic objects. To identify objects reliably, intensity invariant representations have to be formed. We approached this problem within the auditory pathway of grasshoppers. We presented AM patterns modulated at different time scales and intensities. Metric space analysis of(More)
Many animal species, including insects, are capable of acoustic duetting, a complex social behavior in which males and females tightly control the rate and timing of their courtship song syllables relative to each other. The mechanisms underlying duetting remain largely unknown across model systems. Most studies of duetting focus exclusively on acoustic(More)
Sparse coding schemes are employed by many sensory systems and implement efficient coding principles. Yet, the computations yielding sparse representations are often only partly understood. The early auditory system of the grasshopper produces a temporally and population-sparse representation of natural communication signals. To reveal the computations(More)
When waterlogged over a period of 80 days plants of Eucalyptus robusta Sm. showed symptoms of leaf chlorosis, epinasty and premature abscission, reduction of stem elongation, stem hypertrophy and formation of adventitious shoots; chlorophyll content was reduced and soluble protein content of the upper leaves increased. Waterlogging doubled the rate of(More)