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Low molecular weight fragmentation products of the polysaccharide of Hyaluronic acid (sHA) produced during inflammation have been shown to be potent activators of immunocompetent cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages. Here we report that sHA induces maturation of DCs via the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, a receptor complex associated with innate(More)
A key for long-term survival and function of biomaterials is that they do not elicit a detrimental immune response. As biomaterials can have profound impacts on the host immune response the concept emerged to design biomaterials that are able to trigger desired immunological outcomes and thus support the healing process. However, engineering such(More)
Tissues must quickly recognize injury to respond to the rapid pace of microbial growth. In skin, dermal microvascular endothelial cells must also react to danger signals from the surrounding tissue and immediately participate by initiating the wound repair process. Components of the extracellular matrix such as hyaluronan are rapidly broken down into(More)
Small fragments of the extracellular matrix component hyaluronic acid (sHA) are typically produced at sites of inflammation and tissue injury and have been shown to be associated with tumor invasiveness and metastasis. Here we report that exposure of human melanoma cells to sHA leads to nuclear factor kB (NFk-B) activation followed by enhanced expression of(More)
cAMP is a key messenger of many hormones and neuropeptides, some of which modulate the composition of extracellular matrix. Treatment of human dermal fibroblasts with dibutyryl cyclic AMP and forskolin antagonized the inductive effects of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) on the expression of collagen, connective tissue growth factor, tissue(More)
Glycosaminoglycan-modified isoforms of CD44 have been implicated in growth factor presentation at sites of inflammation. In the present study we show that COS cell transfectants expressing CD44 isoforms containing the alternatively spliced exon V3 are modified with heparan sulfate (HS). Binding studies with three HS-binding growth factors, basic-fibroblast(More)
Upon antigen contact, epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) and dendritic cells (DC) leave peripheral organs and home to lymph nodes via the afferent lymphatic vessels and then assemble in the paracortical T cell zone and present antigen to T lymphocytes. Since splice variants of CD44 promote metastasis of certain tumors to lymph nodes, we explored the expression(More)
The extracellular matrix component hyaluronan (HA) exists physiologically as a high m.w. polymer but is cleaved at sites of inflammation, where it will be contacted by dendritic cells (DC). To determine the effects of HA on DC, HA fragments of different size were established. Only small HA fragments of tetra- and hexasaccharide size (sHA), but not of(More)
The interaction between activated vascular endothelium and T cells has been shown to play an important role in the recruitment and activation of T cells at sites of inflammation. Here we report the expression of CD40 by vascular endothelial cells and its regulation by inflammatory agents. Using the soluble recombinant CD40 ligand, sgp39, we show that the(More)