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Human midkine (hMK), a novel heparin-binding neurotrophic factor consisting of 121 amino acid residues with five intramolecular disulphide bonds, was synthesized by solution procedure in order to demonstrate the usefulness of our newly developed solvent system, a mixture of dichloromethane or chloroform and trifluoroethanol. The final protected 121-residue(More)
The present paper describes the total chemical synthesis of the precursor molecule of the Aequorea green fluorescent protein (GFP). The molecule is made up of 238 amino acid residues in a single polypeptide chain and is nonfluorescent. To carry out the synthesis, a procedure, first described in 1981 for the synthesis of complex peptides, was used. The(More)
PLTX II, a presynaptic calcium channel blocker in Drosophila isolated from the plectreurys spider venom, is a 44-residue peptide containing ten Cys residues and an O-palmitoylated threonine amide at the carboxy-terminus. In this study, the palmitoylated peptide was synthesized in solution by applying our maximum protection strategy using the HF method at(More)
Antagonist and agonist activities of chemically synthetized mouse agouti protein fragment (91-131) (AP91-131) at the melanocortin type-1 receptor (MC1-R) were assessed using B 16-F1 mouse melanoma cells in vitro and the following assay systems: (i) receptor binding, (ii) adenylate cyclase, (iii) tyrosinase, (iv) melanin production, and (v) cell(More)
The success of solid phase peptide synthesis is often limited by the aggregation of the growing peptide chains on the resin. Working from the results of a study of model coupling reactions in solution between Z-Gly-Phe-OH and H-Phe-OBzl, we have achieved higher efficiency in the repetitive solid phase fragment condensation of VGVAPG, in a 3:1(More)
As analogs of the widely used anti-tumor agents, N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosoureas, N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-nitroureas and N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrocarbamates were synthesized by nitration following the reaction of the appropriate amines or alcohols with 2-chloroethyl isocyanate. All tested compounds exert cytotoxic effect with IC50 values of 10(-4) to 10(-6) M(More)
Solution conformation of cyclo(Gly1-His2-Phe3-Arg4-Trp5-Gly6) and its D-Phe analog corresponding to the message sequence [Gly-alpha-MSH5-10] of alpha-MSH has been studied by 1D and 2D proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-d6 solution and in a DMSO-d6/H2O cryoprotective mixture. The NMR data for both the analogs in solution at(More)
In order to study the role of N-terminal substitutions of peptide sequences related to the active site of alpha-melanotropin, [Glp5]alpha-MSH(5-10), [Glp5,D-Phe7]alpha-MSH(5-10), [Sar5,D-Phe7]alpha-MSH(5-10), [Nle4,D-Phe7]alpha-MSH(4-10), [N-carbamoyl]alpha-MSH(5-10), and formyl and acetyl derivatives of alpha-MSH(5-10), [Gly5]alpha-MSH(5-10) and(More)
In the synthesis of large peptides or proteins, highly homogeneous segments are indispensable for a convergent strategy either on a solid-phase resin or in solution. Employing Boc/Bzl chemistry to prepare fully protected segments with a free alpha-carboxyl group from the solid support, base-labile linkers are profitable for practical peptide synthesis since(More)