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The incorporation of L-kynurenine (L-KYN) into kynurenic acid (KYNA) was examined in rat brain slices. KYNA was measured in the slices and in the incubation medium after purification by ion-exchange and HPLC chromatography. In pilot experiments, the formation of KYNA was confirmed by gas chromatography. KYNA was produced stereoselectively from L-KYN, and(More)
Previously, we have shown that 3-nitropropionic acid (NPA) neurotoxicity in organotypic corticostriatal slice cultures is dependent on glucose and glutamate. Here we studied the neuroprotective potential of agents improving mitochondrial function, including creatine, malate, oxaloacetate, Pyruvate and L-lactate in NPA-treated slice cultures. pyruvate(More)
Dopamine, a catecholamine neurotransmitter, is important for insect development and is known to be involved in insect stress responses. In the current study, dopamine was analysed in Aedes aegypti heads by HPLC. We found that immediately after adult emergence, males have significantly higher concentrations of dopamine than females, and that dopamine(More)
Migraine is a complex brain disorder, and understanding the complexity of this prevalent disease could improve quality of life for millions of people. Familial Hemiplegic Migraine type 2 (FHM2) is a subtype of migraine with aura and co-morbidities like epilepsy/seizures, cognitive impairments and psychiatric manifestations, such as obsessive-compulsive(More)
Slices of developing brain tissue can be grown for several weeks as so-called organotypic slice cultures. Here we summarize and review studies using hippocampal slice cultures to investigate mechanisms and treatment strategies for the neurodegenerative disorders like stroke (cerebral ischemia), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and epilepsia. Studies of(More)
The present study provides evidence for anterograde axonal transport of manganese (Mn) in the basal ganglia. Microinjections of 54Mn into rat substantia nigra or striatum revealed region-specific accumulation and retention of the isotope in globus pallidus, striatum, thalamus and substantia nigra for up to at least 48 or 72 h respectively. Within 4 h after(More)
Regional 45Ca2+ accumulation and analysis of monoamines and metabolites in dissected tissues were used to localize, quantify, and characterize brain damage after intracerebral injections of Mn2+ into striatum and hippocampus. The specificity of Mn(2+)-induced lesions is described in relation to brain damage produced by local Fe2+ or 6-hydroxydopamine(More)
Two separate in vitro assays were used to examine the biosynthesis of the broad spectrum excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist kynurenic acid (KYNA) during the life span of the adult rat. Assessment of KYNA's anabolic enzyme kynurenine aminotransferase revealed steady increases between 3 and 24 months of age in all five brain regions examined. No(More)
The excitotoxic effects of the glutamate receptor agonists kainic acid (KA) and 2-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) and the corresponding neuroprotective effects of the AMPA/KA receptor antagonist 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo(F)quinoxaline (NBQX) were examined in corticostriatal slice cultures. The purpose was to examine the(More)
This study was designed to investigate modulatory mechanisms that control the synthesis of the neuroprotective endogenous excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist kynurenate. De novo kynurenate formation was examined in vitro using tissue slices from rat brain, liver, and kidney. In slices from adult cerebral cortex, veratridine, quisqualate, and(More)