Jan Balzarini

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The human multidrug resistance proteins MRP4 and MRP5 are organic anion transporters that have the unusual ability to transport cyclic nucleotides and some nucleoside monophosphate analogs. Base and nucleoside analogs used in the chemotherapy of cancer and viral infections are potential substrates. To assess the possible contribution of MRP4 and MRP5 to(More)
Two prominent members of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily of transmembrane proteins, multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1), can mediate the cellular extrusion of xenobiotics and (anticancer) drugs from normal and tumor cells. The MRP subfamily consists of at least six members, and here we report the(More)
Resistance to antivirals is a complex and dynamic phenomenon that involves more mutations than are currently known. Here, we characterize 10 additional mutations (L74V, K101Q, I135M/T, V179I, H221Y, K223E/Q, and L228H/R) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase which are involved in the regulation of resistance to nonnucleoside(More)
BACKGROUND Less than half of all patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) are cured with standard chemotherapy. Therefore, it is important to distinguish between responders to standard treatment and non-responders who may benefit from an early change to a more effective therapy. This study was intended to assess the value of a midtreatment(More)
A rapid, sensitive and automated assay procedure was developed for the in vitro evaluation of anti-HIV agents. An HTLV-I transformed T4-cell line, MT-4, which was previously shown by Koyanagi et al. (1985) to be highly susceptible to, and permissive for, HIV infection, served as the target cell line. Inhibition of the HIV-induced cytopathic effect was used(More)
The sulfated polysaccharides dextran sulfate and heparin have proved to be potent and selective inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in vitro. Dextran sulfate (Mr 5000) and heparin (Mr 15,000) completely protected MT-4 cells against HIV-1-induced cytopathogenicity at a concentration of 25 micrograms/ml. Their 50% inhibitory(More)
The alpha-(1-3)-D-mannose- and alpha-(1-6)-D-mannose-specific agglutinins (lectins) from Galanthus nivalis, Hippeastrum hybrid, Narcissus pseudonarcissus, and Listera ovata inhibited infection of MT-4 cells by human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) and simian immunodeficiency virus at concentrations comparable to the concentrations at(More)
PURPOSE A complete remission (CR) after first-line therapy is associated with longer progression-free survival (PFS). However, defining CR is not always easy because of the presence of residual masses. Metabolic imaging with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) offers the ability to differentiate between viable and(More)
Bicyclams, in which the cyclam (1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane) moieties are tethered via an aliphatic bridge (i.e., propylene, as in JM2763) are potent and selective inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and type 2 (HIV-2) (E. De Clercq, N. Yamamoto, R. Pauwels, M. Baba, D. Schols, H. Nakashima, J. Balzarini, Z. Debyser, B. A.(More)
Thymidine phosphorylase (TP), also known as "platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor" (PD-ECGF), is an enzyme, which is upregulated in a wide variety of solid tumors including breast and colorectal cancers. TP promotes tumor growth and metastasis by preventing apoptosis and inducing angiogenesis. Elevated levels of TP are associated with tumor(More)