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Class III multidrug resistance (MDR) P-glycoproteins (P-gp), mdr2 in mice and MDR3 in man, mediate the translocation of phosphatidylcholine across the canalicular membrane of the hepatocyte. Mice with a disrupted mdr2 gene completely lack biliary phospholipid excretion and develop progressive liver disease, characterized histologically by portal(More)
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is overexpressed in diabetic nephropathy (DN) and has therefore been implicated in its pathogenesis. The objective of the present study was to determine the tissue distribution of increased CTGF expression and the relationship of plasma, urinary, and renal CTGF levels to the development and severity of DN. We studied(More)
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination of the immunoglobulin (IG) genes in B cells. It has recently been proposed that AID, as the newly identified DNA mutator in man, may be instrumental in initiation and progression of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (B-NHL). We quantitatively(More)
BACKGROUND Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a prototypic long pentraxin with structural similarities in the C-terminal domain to the classical short pentraxins C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid P component. PTX3 is suggested to play an important role in the innate resistance against pathogens, regulation of inflammatory reactions, and clearance of apoptotic(More)
Injection of a low dose of mercuric chloride into Brown Norway (BN) rats caused a marked decrease in the concanavalin A (ConA)-induced generation of interferon-gamma-producing cells (IFN-gamma pc) in spleen cell cultures prepared 1 h after mercury administration. A second injection 48 h later caused a further diminution of IFN-gamma pc down to 30% of the(More)
Chronic renal failure may occur in etiologically diverse renal diseases and can be caused by hemodynamic, immunologic and metabolic factors. Initial damage may evoke irreversible scarring, which involves production of a number of proinflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines, including platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor beta(More)
A growing body of evidence implicates ceramide and/or its glycosphingolipid metabolites in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. We have developed a highly specific small molecule inhibitor of glucosylceramide synthase, an enzyme that catalyzes a necessary step in the conversion of ceramide to glycosphingolipids. In cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, the(More)
In diabetic nephropathy, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is upregulated and bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) is downregulated. CTGF is known to inhibit BMP-4, but similar cross-talk between BMP-7 and CTGF has not been studied. In this study, it was hypothesized that CTGF acts as an inhibitor of BMP-7 signaling activity in diabetic nephropathy.(More)
Deficiency of glucocerebrosidase (GBA) underlies Gaucher disease, a common lysosomal storage disorder. Carriership for Gaucher disease has recently been identified as major risk for parkinsonism. Presently, no method exists to visualize active GBA molecules in situ. We here report the design, synthesis and application of two fluorescent activity-based(More)
CD134 (OX40) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor (TNFR) family that can be expressed on activated T lymphocytes. Interaction between CD134 and its ligand (CD134L) is involved in costimulation of T and B lymphocyte activation, and in T cell adhesion to endothelium. To examine the possible role of this interaction in the pathogenesis of(More)