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Chronic renal failure may occur in etiologically diverse renal diseases and can be caused by hemodynamic, immunologic and metabolic factors. Initial damage may evoke irreversible scarring, which involves production of a number of proinflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines, including platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor beta(More)
Glycosphingolipids are structural membrane components, residing largely in the plasma membrane with their sugar-moieties exposed at the cell's surface. In recent times a crucial role for glycosphingolipids in insulin resistance has been proposed. A chronic state of insulin resistance is a rapidly increasing disease condition in Western and developing(More)
A growing body of evidence implicates ceramide and/or its glycosphingolipid metabolites in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. We have developed a highly specific small molecule inhibitor of glucosylceramide synthase, an enzyme that catalyzes a necessary step in the conversion of ceramide to glycosphingolipids. In cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, the(More)
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a member of the CCN family of immediate early genes, which are involved in cell proliferation, migration, and matrix production. Recently, CTGF was observed to be strongly upregulated in human proliferative and fibrogenic renal disease. By in situ hybridization and reverse transcriptase-PCR, the expression of CTGF(More)
CD134 (OX40) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor (TNFR) family that can be expressed on activated T lymphocytes. Interaction between CD134 and its ligand (CD134L) is involved in costimulation of T and B lymphocyte activation, and in T cell adhesion to endothelium. To examine the possible role of this interaction in the pathogenesis of(More)
Deficiency of glucocerebrosidase (GBA) underlies Gaucher disease, a common lysosomal storage disorder. Carriership for Gaucher disease has recently been identified as major risk for parkinsonism. Presently, no method exists to visualize active GBA molecules in situ. We here report the design, synthesis and application of two fluorescent activity-based(More)
HgCl2 induces an autoimmune syndrome in Brown Norway rats that involves synthesis of anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies and development of nephritis with high proteinuria. HgCl2-induced changes in the composition of leukocyte populations and in the expression of MHC antigens in lymphoid and nonlymphoid organs were investigated by flow(More)
In diabetic nephropathy, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is upregulated and bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) is downregulated. CTGF is known to inhibit BMP-4, but similar cross-talk between BMP-7 and CTGF has not been studied. In this study, it was hypothesized that CTGF acts as an inhibitor of BMP-7 signaling activity in diabetic nephropathy.(More)
Aphasic patients who met stringent selection criteria were assigned randomly to three groups: clinic treatment by a speech pathologist for 12 weeks, followed by 12 weeks of no treatment; home treatment by a trained volunteer for 12 weeks, followed by 12 weeks of no treatment; or deferred treatment for 12 weeks, followed by 12 weeks of treatment by a speech(More)