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Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and portal-systemic encephalopathy (PSE) are the terms used interchangeably to describe a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with acute or chronic hepatocellular failure, increased portal systemic shunting of blood, or both. Hepatic encephalopathy complicating acute liver failure is referred to as fulminant hepatic(More)
The neurotoxicity of high levels of methylmercury (MeHg) is well established both in humans and experimental animals. Astrocytes accumulate MeHg and play a prominent role in mediating MeHg toxicity in the central nervous system (CNS). Although the precise mechanisms of MeHg neurotoxicity are ill-defined, oxidative stress and altered mitochondrial and cell(More)
The maintenance of pH homeostasis in the CNS is of key importance for proper execution and regulation of neurotransmission, and deviations from this homeostasis are a crucial factor in the mechanism underlying a spectrum of pathological conditions. The first few sections of the review are devoted to the brain operating under normal conditions. The article(More)
Taurine appears to have multiple functions in the brain participating both in volume regulation and neurotransmission. In the latter context it may exert its actions by serving as an agonist at receptors of the GABAergic and glycinergic neurotransmitter systems. Its interaction with GABAA and GABAB receptors as well as with glycine receptors is reviewed and(More)
OBJECTIVE Our purpose was to determine the contemporary maternal and neonatal outcome of triplet gestations. STUDY DESIGN A retrospective review of 57 triplet deliveries between April 1, 1989, and July 31, 1994, was performed. RESULTS The mean gestational age at delivery was 33.0 +/- 2.7 weeks, and the mean birth weight was 1820 +/- 513 gm. The most(More)
Excessive free radical formation has been implicated as a causative factor in neurotoxic damage associated with exposures to a variety of metals, including manganese (Mn). It is well established that Mn accumulates in astrocytes, affecting their ability to indirectly induce and/or exacerbate neuronal dysfunction. The present study examined the effects of Mn(More)
Rats were treated with a hepatotoxin thioacetamide (TAA) and examined 21 days later, when they showed moderate fatty metamorphosis of the liver and morphological changes in brain indicative of excitotoxic neuronal damage, but no evident biochemical or neurophysiological symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)(More)
Many neurologic disorders are related to congenital or acquired hyperammonemia (HA). Advanced symptoms of HA range from seizures in acute stages to stupor and coma in more chronic conditions, manifesting variable imbalance between the inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission. Evidence obtained with the use of experimental HA models suggests that acute(More)
Ammonia is responsible for cerebral edema associated with acute liver failure, but the role of the vasogenic mechanism has been a matter of dispute. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ammonia induces changes in blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability by a mechanism coupled to oxidative/nitrosative stress (ONS) evoked in the BBB-forming cerebral capillary(More)