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For fish, daphnids, and algae, acute to chronic ratios (ACRs) have been determined from experimental data regarding new and existing chemicals. Only test results in accord with the European Union Technical Guidance Document (TGD) and validated by authorities were considered. Whereas the median ACRs of 10.5 (fish), 7.0 (daphnids), and 5.4 (algae) are well(More)
BACKGROUND, AIM AND SCOPE Due to a number of drawbacks associated with the previous regime for the assessment of new and existing chemicals, the European Union established a new regulation concerning the registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals (REACH). All relevant industrial chemicals must now be assessed. Instead of the(More)
  • J Ahlers
  • Environmental science and pollution research…
  • 1999
The legal framework for the risk assessment of chemicals was established in the EU by a directive carried out during the beginning of the 1980s which was transformed into a national chemical acts by the member states. It describes the extent of information industry has to present before marketing a newly synthesised substance. Since 1993 in the European(More)
1. Plasma membrane preparations have been isolated from spheroplasts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, strain R XII, via lysis and subsequent differential centrifugation. These preparations are almost devoid of mitochondria) contamination. 2. The plasma membrane ATPase is fairly stable when refrigerated, but loses activity at 8 °C and above. Below pH 5.6 the(More)
BUA compiled the available data on toxicity and ecotoxicity for several acrylic and methacrylic acid esters and their corresponding acids. A comparison of these data revealed a qualitative similarity in the toxicological and ecotoxicological properties of the compounds considered. The data indicate that methacrylates are less reactive than the corresponding(More)
In environmental risk assessments the question has to be answered, whether risk reduction measures are necessary in order to protect the environment. If the combination of natural and anthropogenic sources of a chemical substance leads to an unacceptable risk, the man-made emissions have to be reduced. In this case the proportions of the anthropogenic and(More)
Most of the existing chemicals of high priority have been released into the environment for many years. Risk assessments for existing chemicals are now conducted within the framework of the German Existing Chemicals Program and by the EC Regulation on Existing Substances. The environmental assessment of a chemical involves: a) exposure assessment leading to(More)
This article gives a comprehensive overview on the strategy, the development and the progress of the German postgraduate degree program in ecotoxicology (SETAC GLB and GDCh). The program soon prompted positive results: more than 10 years now the courses had an average enrolment rate of 90 %, and employment-seeking graduates from the first courses mostly(More)
Bound and solubilized ATPase from Escherichia coli show similar kinetic properties. The saturation curves for MgATP are hyperbolic with both preparations. The straight lines in the Line-weaver–Burk plot indicate that MgATP is the true substrate, that one molecule MgATP is bound per enzyme molecule, and that there is no cooperativity. Presence of EDTA leads(More)
The pesticide PCP was shown to inhibit the Hill reaction in broken chloroplasts (I50 = 15 jam) and to quench chlorophyll fluorescence. Both effects require preillumination. In contrast to the common “phenol-type” inhibitors, neither inhibition of Hill reaction nor chlorophyll fluorescence quench were affected by pretreatment of chloroplast with trypsin(More)