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awareness of bird fl u and the practice of backyard poultry in a north-central state of Nigeria. The epidemiology of Newcastle disease in rural poultry: a review. To the Editor: More than three quarters of critically endangered species of amphibians are threatened by infectious disease; several are already extinct (1). In 2010, the yellow-spotted bell frog(More)
Vaccination with proteins from gametocytes of Eimeria maxima protects chickens, via transfer of maternal antibodies, against infection with several species of Eimeria. Antibodies to E. maxima gametocyte proteins recognise proteins in the wall forming bodies of macrogametocytes and oocyst walls of E. maxima, Eimeria tenella and Eimeria acervulina. Homologous(More)
BACKGROUND A parasite morphologically indistinguishable from Myxidium immersum (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) found in gallbladders of the invasive cane toad (Bufo marinus) was identified in Australian frogs. Because no written record exists for such a parasite in Australian endemic frogs in 19th and early 20th century, it was assumed that the cane toad introduced(More)
Infectious diseases are contributing to the decline of endangered amphibians. We identified myxosporean parasites, Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea: Myxozoa), in the brain and liver of declining native frogs, the Green and Golden Bell frog (Litoria aurea) and the Southern Bell frog (Litoria raniformis). We unequivocally identified two Myxidium spp. (both(More)
BACKGROUND The mosquito Culex annulirostris Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of endemic arboviruses in Australia and is also responsible for the establishment of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in southern Papua New Guinea (PNG) as well as its incursions into northern Australia. Papua New Guinea and mainland Australia are separated by a(More)
Experimental infections of Sminthopsis crassicaudata, the fat-tailed dunnart, a carnivorous marsupial widely distributed throughout the arid and semi-arid zones of Australia, show that this species can act as an intermediate host for Neospora caninum. In contrast to existing models that develop relatively few N. caninum tissue cysts, dunnarts offer a new(More)
Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that is the etiologic agent of neosporosis, a devastating infectious disease regarded as a major cause of reproductive loss in cattle and neuromuscular disease in dogs worldwide. This protozoan pathogen is maintained in the environment by a heteroxenous life cycle that involves a definitive canid host and a wide(More)
The spread of wildlife pathogens into new geographical ranges or populations is a conservation concern for endangered species. Cystodiscus australis and Cystodiscus axonis are two species of myxosporean parasites infecting Australian frogs and tadpoles that have been recently recognised as important disease agents impacting amphibian conservation. Yet(More)
BACKGROUND The coral is predominantly composed of the metabolically dependent coral host and the photosynthetic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp. The system as a whole interacts with symbiotic eukaryotes, bacteria and viruses. Gemmocystiscylindrus (cf. "type-N" symbiont) belonging to the obligatory parasitic phylum Apicomplexa (Alveolata) is ubiquitous in the(More)
Few, if any, protozoan parasites are reported to exhibit extreme organ tropism like the flagellate Tritrichomonas foetus. In cattle, T. foetus infects the reproductive system causing abortion, whereas the infection in cats results in chronic large bowel diarrhoea. In the absence of a T. foetus genome, we utilized a de novo approach to assemble the(More)