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OBJECT The authors analyze long-term outcome in a substantial number of patients who underwent subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery under general anesthesia. METHODS Eighty-two patients underwent bilateral placement of DBS electrodes under general anesthesia for advanced Parkinson disease; the STN was the target in all cases. All(More)
OBJECTIVES Levodopa and other dopaminergic treatments have not had the expected effect on survival in Parkinson's disease (PD). Bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) has been shown to improve motor function, motor fluctuations, health-related quality of life, and to reduce medication usage and drug-induced dyskinesia in patients(More)
OBJECTIVES Microelectrode recording (MER) plays an important role in target refinement in deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) for Parkinson's disease (PD). Traditionally, patients were operated on in the 'off-medication' state to allow intraoperative assessment of the patient response to direct STN stimulation. The development of(More)
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