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All parasites are thought to have evolved from free-living ancestors. However, the ancestral conditions facilitating the shift to parasitism are unclear, particularly in plants because the phylogenetic position of many parasites is unknown. This is especially true for Rafflesia, an endophytic holoparasite that produces the largest flowers in the world and(More)
Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of these communities. Also, it is debated whether mountain endemics(More)
Of the myriad birds with uncertain phylogenetic aYnities and convoluted taxonomic histories, perhaps none rivals the Bornean Bristlehead (Pityriasis gymnocephala) for the sheer number of families to which it has been allied and the resulting confusion as to its biogeographic history. The sole member of the genus is endemic to Borneo, where it is an uncommon(More)
Evolutionary theory explains phenotypic change as the result of natural selection, with constraint limiting the direction, magnitude, and rate of response [1]. Constraint is particularly likely to govern evolutionary change when a trait is at perceived upper or lower limits. Macroevolutionary rates of floral-size change are unknown for any angiosperm(More)
The aim of the present study is to elucidate the evolutionary history of the enigmatic holoparasitic Rafflesiaceae. More specifically, floral morphological evolution is interpreted in a molecular phylogenetic context, the biogeographic history of the family is investigated, and the possibility of character displacement to have been operating in this family(More)
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