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OBJECT The present study investigated the role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), aquaporin-4 (AQP-4), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability alterations and brain edema formation in a rodent traumatic brain injury (TBI) model. METHODS The brains of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (400-425 g) were injured(More)
Previous studies have demonstrated that traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes brain edema via aquaporins (AQPs), the water-transporting proteins. In the present study, we determined the role of hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), which is a transcription factor in response to physiological hypoxia, in regulating expression of AQP4 and AQP9. Adult(More)
The pathophysiology of stroke, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, is still in the process of being understood. Pre-ischemic exercise has been known to be beneficial in reducing the severity of stroke-induced brain injury in animal models. Forced exercise with a stressful component, rather than voluntary exercise, was better able to induce(More)
The present study, using a rodent model of closed-head diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI), investigated the role of dysregulated aquaporins (AQP) 4 and 9, as well as hypoxia inducible factor -1α(HIF-1α) on brain edema formation, neuronal injury, and functional deficits. TBI was induced in adult (400-425 g), male Sprague-Dawley rats using a modified(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Ethanol consumption is inversely associated with the risk of ischemic stroke, suggesting a neuroprotective effect. In a rat model of transient cerebral ischemia, we identified ethanol as a possible treatment for acute ischemic stroke. METHODS Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 hours. Five(More)
The present study assessed the role of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and -9 in synapse loss after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the role of hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), a transcription factor up-regulated during hypoxia, in the regulation of MMP-2 and -9 expression post-TBI. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=6 per group, 400 g-425(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Ethanol has been shown to provide neuroprotective effects, but the precise mechanisms by which these effects occur have yet to be investigated. In this study, we investigate blood-brain barrier (BBB) and edema level changes in association with expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and aquaporins (AQP-4 and AQP-9)(More)
In recent studies, acute ethanol administration appears to play a neuroprotective role during ischemic stroke. We sought to confirm these findings by identifying if ethanol-derived neuroprotection is associated with a reduction in apoptosis. Ethanol at 0.5 and 1.5 g/kg doses was given by intraperitoneal injections to Sprague-Dawley rats after 2h of middle(More)
Studies have demonstrated neuroprotective effects of either TNF-alpha or HSP-70 in ischemia/reperfusion injury following exercise. However, the protective mechanisms involving combined effect of the two proteins, particularly in neuronal apoptosis, remain unclear. This study aims to elucidate the beneficial role of TNF-alpha and HSP-70 in the regulation of(More)
OBJECT Previous studies have demonstrated that traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes brain edema by allowing excessive water passage through aquaporin (AQP) proteins. To establish the potential neuroprotective properties of ethanol as a post-TBI therapy, in the present study the authors determined the effect of ethanol on brain edema, AQP expression, and(More)