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BACKGROUND Information about the distribution of causes of and time trends for child mortality should be periodically updated. We report the latest estimates of causes of child mortality in 2010 with time trends since 2000. METHODS Updated total numbers of deaths in children aged 0-27 days and 1-59 months were applied to the corresponding country-specific(More)
BACKGROUND Diarrhea is recognized as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries yet updated estimates of diarrhea incidence by age for these countries are greatly needed. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify cohort studies that sought to quantify diarrhea incidence(More)
BACKGROUND Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinins, the first line treatment for malaria worldwide, has been reported in western Cambodia. Resistance is characterized by significantly delayed clearance of parasites following artemisinin treatment. Artemisinin resistance has not previously been reported in Myanmar, which has the highest falciparum(More)
OBJECTIVE This analysis determines the importance of geography and spatial behavior as predisposing and enabling factors in rural health care utilization, controlling for demographic, social, cultural, and health status factors. DATA SOURCES A survey of 1,059 adults in 12 rural Appalachian North Carolina counties. STUDY DESIGN This cross-sectional study(More)
BACKGROUND Despite remarkable progress in the improvement of child survival between 1990 and 2015, the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 target of a two-thirds reduction of under-5 mortality rate (U5MR) was not achieved globally. In this paper, we updated our annual estimates of child mortality by cause to 2000-15 to reflect on progress toward the MDG 4(More)
BACKGROUND Trends in the causes of child mortality serve as important global health information to guide efforts to improve child survival. With child mortality declining in Bangladesh, the distribution of causes of death also changes. The three verbal autopsy (VA) studies conducted with the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys provide a unique(More)
There is a growing body of literature indicating an association between stunting and environmental enteropathy (EE), a disorder thought to be caused by repeated exposures to enteric pathogens. To investigate the relationship between exposure to enteric pathogens through geophagy, consumption of soil, EE, and stunting, we conducted a prospective cohort study(More)
Undernutrition is estimated to be an underlying cause of over half of all deaths in young children globally. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that increased exposure to enteric pathogens is responsible for environmental enteropathy (EE), a disorder associated with impaired growth in children. To determine if household unsanitary(More)
OBJECTIVES The article reviews proportional and partial proportional odds regression for ordered categorical outcomes, such as patient-reported measures, that are frequently used in clinical research in dentistry. METHODS The proportional odds regression model for ordinal data is a generalization of ordinary logistic regression for dichotomous responses.(More)
BACKGROUND Harmful practices in the management of childhood diarrhea are associated with negative health outcomes, and conflict with WHO treatment guidelines. These practices include restriction of fluids, breast milk and/or food intake during diarrhea episodes, and incorrect use of modern medicines. We conducted a systematic review of English-language(More)