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Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) allows measurement of neurotransmitter concentrations within a region of interest in the brain. Inter-individual variation in MRS-measured GABA levels have been related to variation in task performance in a number of regions. However, it is not clear how MRS-assessed measures of GABA relate to cortical excitability or(More)
Coordination between glutamatergic excitatory neurons and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic inhibitory interneurons is fundamental to the regulation of neuronal firing rates and is believed to have relevance to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) contrast. While much is known regarding the molecular behavior of excitatory and inhibitory(More)
Although the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has long been implicated in reward-guided decision making, its exact role in this process has remained an unresolved issue. Here we show that, in accordance with models of decision making, vmPFC concentrations of GABA and glutamate in human volunteers predict both behavioral performance and the dynamics of(More)
Gamma band oscillations arise in neuronal networks of interconnected GABAergic interneurons and excitatory pyramidal cells. A previous study found a correlation between visual gamma peak frequency, as measured with magnetoencephalography, and resting GABA levels, as measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), in 12 healthy volunteers. If true, this(More)
PURPOSE Frequency and phase drifts are a common problem in the acquisition of in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) data. If not accounted for, frequency and phase drifts will result in artifactual broadening of spectral peaks, distortion of spectral lineshapes, and a reduction in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We present herein a new method for(More)
ATP citrate-lyase is the primary enzyme responsible for the synthesis of cytosolic acetyl-CoA in many tissues. We have isolated a full-length cDNA copy of 4.3 kilobase pairs encoding the ATP-citrate lyase mRNA by screening rat liver cDNA library using oligonucleotide probes designed from peptide sequences obtained from the purified rat enzyme. Expression of(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the dominant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain and is important in motor learning. We aimed to measure GABA content in primary motor cortex poststroke (using GABA-edited magnetic resonance spectroscopy [MRS]) and in relation to motor recovery during 2 weeks of constraint-induced movement therapy(More)
We previously demonstrated that network level functional connectivity in the human brain could be related to levels of inhibition in a major network node at baseline (Stagg et al., 2014). In this study, we build upon this finding to directly investigate the effects of perturbing M1 GABA and resting state functional connectivity using transcranial direct(More)
The brain has limited capacity, and so selective attention enhances relevant incoming information while suppressing irrelevant information. This process is not always successful, and the frequency of such cognitive failures varies to a large extent between individuals. Here we hypothesised that individual differences in cognitive failures might be reflected(More)
Short-TE MRS has been proposed recently as a method for the in vivo detection and quantification of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the human brain at 3 T. In this study, we investigated the accuracy and reproducibility of short-TE MRS measurements of GABA at 3 T using both simulations and experiments. LCModel analysis was performed on a large number of(More)