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The mechanisms and carriers responsible for exocytic protein trafficking between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and the plasma membrane remain unclear. To investigate the dynamics of TGN-to-plasma membrane traffic and role of the cytoskeleton in these processes we transfected cells with a GFP-fusion protein, vesicular stomatitis virus G protein tagged with(More)
Representatives of three families of enveloped viruses were shown to fuse tissue culture cells together. These were: Semliki Forest virus (SFV, a togavirus), vesicular stomatitis virus (a rhabdovirus), and two myxoviruses, fowl plaque virus and Japan influenza virus (Japan)/A/305/57). Unlike paramyxoviruses, whose fusion activity is known to occur over a(More)
When BHK-21 cells with Semliki Forest virus (SFV) bound at the plasma membrane are briefly treated with low pH medium (pH 5-6), fusion between the viral membrane and the plasma membrane occurs, releasing the viral nucleocapsid into the cytoplasm. The fusion reaction resembles that described previously for Sendai virus but with one fundamental difference; it(More)
O-glycosylation of proteins is initiated by a family of UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactos-aminyltransferases (GalNAc-T). In this study, we have localized endogenous and epitope-tagged human GalNAc-T1, -T2 and -T3 to the Golgi apparatus in HeLa cells by subcellular fractionation, immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. We show(More)
The function of the Golgi apparatus is to modify proteins and lipids synthesized in the ER and sort them to their final destination. The steady-state size and function of the Golgi apparatus is maintained through the recycling of some components back to the ER. Several lines of evidence indicate that the spatial segregation between the ER and the Golgi(More)
The vertebrate olfactory receptor (OR) subgenome harbors the largest known gene family, which has been expanded by the need to provide recognition capacity for millions of potential odorants. We implemented an automated procedure to identify all OR coding regions from published sequences. This led us to the identification of 831 OR coding regions (including(More)
Oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis of a cDNA encoding the hemagglutinin of influenza virus has been used to introduce single base changes into the sequence that codes for the conserved apolar "fusion peptide" at the amino-terminus of the HA2 subunit. The mutant sequences replaced the wild-type gene in SV40-HA recombinant virus vectors, and the altered HA(More)
The hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus was used to obtain efficient and rapid bulk delivery of antibodies and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into the cytoplasm of living tissue culture cells. By exploiting HA's efficient cell surface expression, its high affinity for erythrocytes, and its acid-dependent membrane fusion activity, a novel delivery method was(More)
The effect of five lysosomotropic weak bases (chloroquine, amantadine, tributylamine, methylamine and NH4C1) on Semliki Forest virus (SFV) infection has been studied in BHK-21 cells. When present at concentrations equal to or greater than 0.1, 0.5, 2, 15 and 15 mM respectively, the agents inhibited SFV infection by more than 90%. The effect was reversible(More)