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The throwing shoulder in pitchers frequently exhibits a paradox of glenohumeral joint motion, in which excessive external rotation is present at the expense of decreased internal rotation. The object of this study was to determine the role of humeral head retroversion in relation to increased glenohumeral external rotation. Glenohumeral joint range of(More)
Relating stimulus properties to the response properties of individual neurons and neuronal networks is a major goal of sensory research. Many investigators implant electrode arrays in multiple brain areas and record from chronically implanted electrodes over time to answer a variety of questions. Technical challenges related to analyzing large-scale(More)
Tree shrews are small squirrel-like mammals that are the closest living relative to primates available for detailed neurobiological study. In a recent study (Remple et al. [2006] J. Comp. Neurol. 497:133-154), we provided anatomical and electrophysiological evidence that the frontoparietal cortex of tree shrews has two motor fields (M1 and M2) and five(More)
Despite extensive investigation of the motor cortex of primates, little is known about the organization of motor cortex in tree shrews, one of their closest living relatives. We investigated the organization of frontoparietal cortex in Belanger's tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) by using intracortical microstimulation (ICMS), corticospinal tracing, and(More)
Despite the lack of ipsilateral receptive fields (RFs) for neurons in the hand representation of area 3b of primary somatosensory cortex, interhemispheric interactions have been reported to varying degrees. We investigated spatiotemporal properties of these interactions to determine the following: response types, timing between stimuli to evoke the(More)
Neurons in the hand representation of primary somatosensory cortex (area 3b) are known to have discretely localized receptive fields; and these neurons form modules that can be visualized histologically as distinct digit and palm representations. Despite these indicators of the importance of local processing in area 3b, widespread interactions between(More)
In using an ISP in conjunction with a structured rehabilitation program, the athlete should be able to return to full competition status. The general guidelines and specific programs outlined are used to minimize the chance of reinjury and to facilitate the return of function and confidence in the athlete. The program and its progression should be modified(More)
Tactile discrimination depends on integration of information from the discrete receptive fields (RFs) of peripheral sensory afferents. Because this information is processed over a hierarchy of subcortical nuclei and cortical areas, the integration likely occurs at multiple levels. The current study presents results indicating that neurons across most of the(More)
As diurnal rodents with a well-developed visual system, squirrels provide a useful comparison of visual system organization with other highly visual mammals such as tree shrews and primates. Here, we describe the projection pattern of gray squirrel superior colliculus (SC) with the large and well-differentiated pulvinar complex. Our anatomical results(More)
Receptive fields of neurons in somatosensory area 3b of monkeys are typically described as restricted to part of a single digit or palm pad. However, such neurons are likely involved in integrating stimulus information from across the hand. To evaluate this possibility, we recorded from area 3b neurons in anesthetized owl monkeys with 100-electrode arrays,(More)