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Polycomb group (PcG) proteins maintain the transcriptional silence of target genes through many cycles of cell division. Here, we provide evidence for the sequential binding of PcG proteins at a Polycomb response element (PRE) in proliferating cells in which the sequence-specific DNA binding Pho and Phol proteins directly recruit E(z)-containing complexes,(More)
Polycomb group proteins (PcG) repress homeotic genes in cells where these genes must remain inactive during Drosophila and vertebrate development. This repression depends on cis-acting silencer sequences, called Polycomb group response elements (PREs). Pleiohomeotic (Pho), the only known sequence-specific DNA-binding PcG protein, binds to PREs but pho(More)
Genes of the Polycomb group (PcG) of Drosophila encode proteins necessary for the maintenance of transcriptional repression of homeotic genes. PcG proteins are thought to act by binding as multiprotein complexes to DNA through Polycomb group response elements (PREs); however, specific DNA binding has not been demonstrated for any of the PcG proteins. We(More)
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins repress homeotic genes in cells where these genes must remain inactive during development. This repression requires cis-acting silencers, also called PcG response elements. Currently, these silencers are ill-defined sequences and it is not known how PcG proteins associate with DNA. Here, we show that the Drosophila PcG protein(More)
We monitored PCR in volumes of the order of 10 nl in glass microcapillaries using a fluorescence energy transfer assay in which fluorescence increases if product is made due to template-dependent nucleolytic degradation of an internally quenched probe (TaqMan assay). This assay detected single starting template molecules in dilutions of genomic DNA. The(More)
Light microscopic studies have demonstrated significant mismatches in the location of neuropeptides and their respective binding sites in the central nervous system. In the present study we used an antiserum raised against a synthetic peptide corresponding to the carboxyl-terminal tail of the substance P (SP) receptor (SPR) to further explore the(More)
The Drosophila segmentation gene fushi tarazu (ftz) is expressed at the cellular blastoderm stage in a pattern of seven transverse stripes; the stripes lie out of register with the segmental primordia, spanning alternate segmental boundaries. The zebra element, a 740-bp DNA sequence upstream of the ftz translational start, directs striped expression of lacZ(More)
The tramtrack (ttk) protein has been proposed as a maternally provided repressor of the fushi tarazu (ftz) gene in Drosophila embryos at the preblastoderm stage. Consistent with this hypothesis, we have detected by immunohistochemistry the presence of ttk protein in preblastoderm embryos. This is followed by a complete decay upon formation of the cellular(More)
Although there is considerable evidence that primary afferent-derived substance P contributes to the transmission of nociceptive messages at the spinal cord level, the population of neurons that expresses the substance P receptor, and thus are likely to respond to substance P, has not been completely characterized. To address this question, we used an(More)