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IgG1 b12 is a broadly neutralizing antibody against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The epitope recognized by b12 overlaps the CD4 receptor-binding site (CD4bs) on gp120 and has been a target for vaccine design. Determination of the three-dimensional structure of immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) b12 allowed modeling of the b12-gp120 interaction in(More)
To understand the requirements for binding to G protein betagamma subunits, phage-displayed random peptide libraries were screened using immobilized biotinylated betagamma as the target. Selected peptides were grouped into four different families based on their sequence characteristics. One group (group I) had a clear conserved motif that has significant(More)
Peptides have the potential for targeting vaccines against pre-specified epitopes on folded proteins. When polyclonal antibodies against native proteins are used to screen peptide libraries, most of the peptides isolated align to linear epitopes on the proteins. The mechanism of cross-reactivity is unclear; both structural mimicry by the peptide and induced(More)
Random peptide libraries and antigen-fragment libraries (also known as gene-fragment libraries) have been used to identify epitopes on protein antigens. These technologies promise to make significant contributions to diagnostic and vaccine development. Researchers in a number of labs have shown that phage selected from libraries with protective antibodies,(More)
The immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus (IGH) encodes variable (IGHV), diversity (IGHD), joining (IGHJ), and constant (IGHC) genes and is responsible for antibody heavy-chain biosynthesis, which is vital to the adaptive immune response. Programmed V-(D)-J somatic rearrangement and the complex duplicated nature of the locus have impeded attempts to reconcile(More)
Enormous efforts have been made to produce a protective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1; there has been little success. However, the identification of broadly neutralizing antibodies against epitopes on the highly conserved membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of the gp41 envelope protein has delineated this region as an attractive(More)
The genes encoding broadly HIV-1-neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are highly divergent from their germ line counterparts. We have hypothesized that such high levels of somatic hypermutation could pose a challenge for elicitation of the broadly neutralizing (bn) Abs and that identification of less somatically mutated bn Abs may help in the(More)