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The response of two populations of neurones in the substantia nigra (nigro-striatal compacta neurones and reticulata neurones) to microelectrophoretically administered putative neurotransmitters and stimulation of the ipsilateral striatum has been investigated in anaesthetized rats. There were marked differences between compacta and reticulata neurones in(More)
Properties of a new potent antagonist acting selectively at N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type excitatory amino acid receptors are described. This compound, 3-((+/-)-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP) is more potent than all previously reported NMDA antagonists in depressing mammalian spinal neuronal responses (cat and immature rat), in(More)
The reference sequence for each human chromosome provides the framework for understanding genome function, variation and evolution. Here we report the finished sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1. Chromosome 1 is gene-dense, with 3,141 genes and 991 pseudogenes, and many coding sequences overlap. Rearrangements and mutations of(More)
A new compound, 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (2APV) is the most potent and selective N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist yet tested. As with other compounds of this type, it blocks L-aspartate and dorsal root-evoked excitation of spinal neurons, but is without effect on the cholinergic excitation of Renshaw cells evoked by exogenous(More)
The separate optical enantiomers of 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV) and 2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (APB) have been tested for their ability to modify amino acid-induced and synaptic excitation of cat spinal neurones. D-(-)-APV was a highly potent and selective antagonist of amino acid-induced and synaptic excitation. Polysynaptic excitation was more(More)
Chromosome 6 is a metacentric chromosome that constitutes about 6% of the human genome. The finished sequence comprises 166,880,988 base pairs, representing the largest chromosome sequenced so far. The entire sequence has been subjected to high-quality manual annotation, resulting in the evidence-supported identification of 1,557 genes and 633 pseudogenes.(More)
Three excitatory amino acid antagonists, 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV), gamma-D-glutamylglycine (gamma DGG) and cis-2,3-piperidine dicarboxylate (PDA) have been compared with respect to their ability to block the action of amino acid excitants and both mono- and polysynaptic excitation in the cat spinal cord evoked by stimulation of primary afferent(More)
1. The effects of D-alpha-aminoadipate (DalphaAA), D-alpha-aminosuberate (DalphaAS) and other excitatory amino acid antagonists have been compared on the excitatory responses of neurones of the cat spinal cord to acetylcholine, a range of glutamate-related amino acids and stimulation of appropriate excitatory synaptic pathways. The ionophoretic technique(More)
Monosynaptic connexions were sought between bulbospinal inspiratory neurones and inspiratory motoneurones of the C5 phrenic nerve or the intercostal nerves of up to six segments in the anaesthetized cat; they were identified by the presence of narrow peaks in cross-correlation histograms constructed from the spontaneous discharges of these neurones. About(More)
Simultaneous recordings were made of the discharges of inspiratory bulbospinal neurones and phrenic or external intercostal alpha-motoneurones in the anaesthetized cat. The connexions between these neurones were studied by the construction of cross-correlation histograms from their discharges. Peaks observed in the cross-correlation histograms were divided(More)