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Decisions about the visual world can take time to form, especially when information is unreliable. We studied the neural correlate of gradual decision formation by recording activity from the lateral intraparietal cortex (area LIP) of rhesus monkeys during a combined motion-discrimination reaction-time task. Monkeys reported the direction of random-dot(More)
When making a decision, one must first accumulate evidence, often over time, and then select the appropriate action. Here, we present a neural model of decision making that can perform both evidence accumulation and action selection optimally. More specifically, we show that, given a Poisson-like distribution of spike counts, biological neural networks can(More)
Decisions based on uncertain information may benefit from an accumulation of information over time. We asked whether such an accumulation process may underlie decisions about the direction of motion in a random dot kinetogram. To address this question we developed a computational model of the decision process using ensembles of neurons whose spiking(More)
As any child knows, the first step in counting is summing up individual elements, yet the brain mechanisms responsible for this process remain obscure. Here we show, for the first time, that a population of neurons in the lateral intraparietal area of monkeys encodes the total number of elements within their classical receptive fields in a graded fashion,(More)
To appropriately respond to an affective stimulus, we must be able to track its value across changes in both the external and internal environment. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a critical component of reward circuitry, but recent work suggests that the NAc encodes aversion as well as reward. It remains unknown whether differential NAc activity reflects(More)
Where we allocate our visual spatial attention depends upon a continual competition between internally generated goals and external distractions. Recently it was shown that single neurons in the macaque lateral intraparietal area (LIP) can predict the amount of time a distractor can shift the locus of spatial attention away from a goal. We propose that this(More)
A wealth of human and animal research supports common neural processing of numerical and temporal information. Here we test whether adult humans spontaneously encode number and time in a paradigm similar to those previously used to test the mode-control model in animals. Subjects were trained to classify visual stimuli that varied in both number and(More)
To successfully evaluate potential courses of action and choose the most favorable, we must consider the outcomes that may result. Many choices involve risk, our assessment of which may lead us to success or failure in matters financial, legal or health-related. The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has been implicated as critical for evaluating choices based on(More)
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a role in hedonic reactivity to taste stimuli. Learning can alter the hedonic valence of a given stimulus, and it remains unclear how the NAc encodes this shift. The present study examined whether the population response of NAc neurons to a taste stimulus is plastic using a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm.(More)
Alcohol use is common in adolescence, with a large portion of intake occurring during episodes of binging. This pattern of alcohol consumption coincides with a critical period for neurocognitive development and may impact decision-making and reward processing. Prior studies have demonstrated alterations in adult decision-making following adolescent usage,(More)